JOE(1) JOE(1)


joe - Joe's Own Editor


joe [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

jstar [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

jmacs [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

rjoe [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

jpico [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...


       JOE  is  a  powerful  ASCII-text  screen editor.  It has a
       "mode-less" user interface which is similer to many  user-
       friendly  PC  editors.   Users  of Micro-Pro's WordStar or
       Borland's "Turbo" languages will feel at home.  JOE  is  a
       full featured UNIX screen-editor though, and has many fea-
       tures for editing programs and text.

       JOE also emulates several other editors.  JSTAR is a close
       immitation  of WordStar with many "JOE" extensions.  JPICO
       is a close immitation of the Pine  mailing  system's  PICO
       editor,  but with many extensions and improvements.  JMACS
       is a GNU-EMACS immitation.  RJOE is a  restricted  version
       of JOE, which allowes you to edit only the files specified
       on the command line.

       Although JOE is actually five different editors, it  still
       requires  only one executable, but one with five different
       names.  The name of the editor with an "rc" appended gives
       the  name  of  JOE's initialization file, which determines
       the personality of the editor.

       JOE is free software;  you can distribute it and/or modify
       it  under  the  terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free  Software  Foundation.   I  have  no
       plans  for  turning  JOE  into  a commercial or share-ware
       product.  JOE is available over the Internet by  anonymous
       FTP from, file: src/editors/joe*.tar.Z.


       To  start  the  editor,  type joe followed by zero or more
       names of files you want to edit.  Each file  name  may  be
       preceeded by a local option setting (see the local options
       table which follows).  Other global options,  which  apply
       to  the  editor as a whole, may also be placed on the com-
       mand line (see the global options  table  which  follows).
       If  you  are  editing  a new file, you can either give the
       name of the new file when you invoke the editor, or in the
       editor  when you save the new file.  A modified syntax for


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       file names is provided to allow you to edit  program  out-
       put,  standard  input/output,  or  sections  of  files  or
       devices.  See the section Filenames below for details.

       Once you are in the editor, you can type in text  and  use
       special control-character sequences to perform other edit-
       ing  tasks.   To  find  out  what  the   control-character
       sequences are, read the rest of this man page or type ^K H
       for help in the editor.

       Now for some obscure computer-lore:

       The ^ means that you  hold  down  the  Control  key  while
       pressing  the  following  key  (the same way the Shift key
       works for uppercase letters).   A  number  of  control-key
       sequences  are duplicated on other keys, so that you don't
       need to press the control key: ESC will work in  place  of
       ^[,  Del  will work in place of ^?, Backspace will work in
       place of ^H, Tab will work in place of ^I, Return or Enter
       will  work  in place of ^M and Linefeed will work in place
       of ^J.  Some keyboards may give you trouble with some con-
       trol  keys.   ^ , ^^ and ^@ can usually be entered without
       pressing shift (I.E., try ^-, ^6 and ^2).  Other keyboards
       may  reassign  these  to  other keys.  Try: ^., ^, and ^/.
       ^SPACE can usually be used in place of ^@.  ^ and ^]  are
       interpreted by many communication programs, including tel-
       net and kermit.  Usually you just hit the key twice to get
       it to pass through the communication program.

       Once you have typed ^K H, the first help window appears at
       the top of the screen.  You can continue to enter and edit
       text  while  the help window is on.  To page through other
       topics, hit ^[, and ^[. (that is, ESC , and ESC  .).   Use
       ^K H to dismiss the help window.

       You  can  customize  the keyboard layout, the help screens
       and a number of behavior defaults by  copying  JOE's  ini-
       tialization  file (usually /usr/local/lib/joerc) to .joerc
       in your home directory and then by modifying it.  See  the
       section joerc below.

       To  have  JOE  used  as your default editor for e-mail and
       News, you need to set the EDITOR  and  VISUAL  environment
       variables  in  your  shell  initialization file (.cshrc or
       .profile)  to  refer  to  JOE  (joe  usually  resides   as

       There  are a number of other obscure invocation parameters
       which may have to be set, particularly  if  your  terminal
       screen  is  not  updating as you think it should.  See the
       section Environment variables below.


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Command Line Options

       The following global options may be specified on the  com-
       mand line:
       -asis  Characters with codes above 127 will be sent to the
              terminal as-is, instead of as inverse of the corre-
              sponding  character  below  128.   If this does not
              work, check your terminal server.
       -backpath path
              If this option  is  given,  backup  files  will  be
              stored  in  the  specified  directory instead of in
              each file's original directory.
       -baud nnn
              Set the baud rate  for  the  purposes  of  terminal
              screen  optimization.   Joe inserts delays for baud
              rates below 19200, which bypasses tty buffering  so
              that  typeahead  will  interrupt the screen output.
              Scrolling commands will not be used for 38400 baud.
              This  is  useful for X-terms and other console ttys
              which really aren't going over a serial line.
       -beep  Joe will beep on command errors and when the cursor
              goes past extremes.
       -columns nnn
              Sets the number of screen columns.
              Continued  search mode: a search immediatly follow-
              ing  a  search  will  repeat  the  previous  search
              instead  of prompting for new string.  This is use-
              ful for the the ^[S and ^[R commands and  for  when
              joe is trying to be emacs.
              Joe usually assumes that there is some kind of flow
              control between it and the tty.   If  there  isn't,
              this  option  will make joe output extra ^@s to the
              tty as specified by the termcap entry.   The  extra
              ^@s  allow the terminal to catch up after long ter-
              minal commands.
       -exask This option makes ^KX verify  the  file  name  that
              it's about to write.


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       -force This  option  makes  sure that the last line of the
              file has a line-feed which it's saved.
       -help  The editor will start with the help  screen  on  if
              this option is given.
              Normally  the  column number and control-key prefix
              fields of the status lines  are  on  a  one  second
              delay  to  reduce  CPU  consumption,  but with this
              option they are updated after each key-stroke.
              The block highlighting will go away after any block
              command if this option is given.
       -lines nnn
              Sets the number of screen lines.
              Text between ^KB and the cursor is highlighted (use
              with -lightoff and a modified joerc  file  to  have
              drop-anchor style block selection).
       -mid   If  this option is set and the cursor moves off the
              window, the window will be  scrolled  so  that  the
              cursor  is in the center.  This option is forced on
              slow terminals which don't have scrolling commands.
              This option prevents backup files.
              This option prevent the copyright notice from being
              displayed when the editor starts.
       -nosta This option eliminates the  top-most  status  line.
              It's  nice  for when you only want to see your text
              on the screen or if you're using a vt52.
       -noxon Attempt to turn off ^S/^Q processing.  This is use-
              ful for when joe is trying to be WordStar or EMACS.


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              When this option is active, extra files on the com-
              mand  line  will  be  placed  in  orphaned  buffers
              instead of in extra windows.  This  is  useful  for
              when joe is trying to be emacs.
       -pg nnn
              This  specifies  the  number of lines to keep after
              PgUp/PgDn (^U/^V).  If -1 is given, half the window
              is kept.
       -skiptop nnn
              Don't  use the top nnn lines of the screen.  Useful
              for when joe is used as a BBS editor.
       Each of these options may be specified in the  joerc  file
       as well.  In addition, the NOXON, BAUD, LINES, COLUMNS and
       DOPADDING options may be specified with environment  vari-

       The  JOETERM  environment  variable may be set to override
       the regular TERM environment variable for specifying  your
       terminal type.

       The  following  options may be specified before each file-
       name on the command line:

+nnn The cursor starts on the specified line.

       -crlf  Joe uses CR-LF as the end of line sequence  instead
              of  just  LF.   This  is  for editing MS-DOS or VMS
              Joe wraps the previous word when you type past  the
              right margin.
              When you hit Return on an indented line, the inden-
              tation is duplicated onto the new line.
              Typing overwrites existing  characters  instead  of
              inserting before them.


JOE(1) JOE(1)

       -lmargin nnn
              Sets the left margin.
       -rmargin nnn
              Sets the right margin.
       -tab nnn
              Sets the tab width.
       -indentc nnn
              Sets  the indentation character for ^K, and ^K. (32
              for SPACE, 9 for TAB).
       -istep nnn
              Sets the indentation step for ^K, and ^K..
              Line numbers are displayed before each line.
              The file is read only.
       -keymap name
              Use an alternate section of the joerc file for  the
              key sequence bindings.
       These  options  can  also  be specified in the joerc file.
       They can be set  depending  on  the  file-name  extension.
       Programs  (.c, .h or .p extension) usually have autoindent
       enabled.  Wordwrap is enabled on other files, but rc files
       have it disabled.

Editing Tasks

Basic Editing

       When  you  type  characters into the editor, they are nor-
       mally inserted into the file being edited (or appended  to
       the  file  if the cursor is at the end of the file).  This
       is the normal operating mode of the editor.  If  you  want
       to  replace some existing text, you have to delete the old
       text before or after you type  in  the  replacement  text.
       The  Backspace key can be used for deleting text: move the
       cursor to right after the text you want to delete and  hit
       Backspace a number of times.

       Hit  the  Enter or Return key to insert a line-break.  For


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       example, if the cursor was in the middle of a line and you
       hit  Return,  the  line would be split into two lines with
       the cursor appearing at the beginning of the second  line.
       Hit  Backspace  at  the beginning of a line to eliminate a

       Use the arrow keys to move around the file.  If your  key-
       board  doesn't  have arrow keys (or if they don't work for
       some reason), use ^F to move forwards (right), ^B to  move
       backwards  (left),  ^P  to move to the previous line (up),
       and ^N to move to the next line  (down).   The  right  and
       left  arrow  keys  simply  move  forwards or backwards one
       character at a time through the text:  if  you're  at  the
       beginning of a line and you press left-arrow, you will end
       up at the end of the previous line.  The up and down arrow
       keys  move  forwards and backwards by enough characters so
       that the cursor appears in the same column that it was  in
       on the original line.

       If  you want to indent the text you enter, you can use the
       TAB key.  This inserts a special control  character  which
       makes the characters which follow it begin at the next TAB
       STOP.  TAB STOPS normally occur every 8 columns, but  this
       can  be  changed with the ^T D command.  PASCAL and C pro-
       grammers often set TAB STOPS on every 4 columns.

       If for some reason your terminal  screen  gets  messed  up
       (for example, if you receive a mail notice from biff), you
       can have the editor refresh the screen by hitting ^R.

       There are many other keys for  deleting  text  and  moving
       around  the file.  For example, hit ^D to delete the char-
       acter the cursor is on instead of deleting backwards  like
       Backspace.  ^D will also delete a line-break if the cursor
       is at the end of a line.  Type ^Y  to  delete  the  entire
       line the cursor is on or ^J to delete just from the cursor
       to the end of the line.

       Hit ^A to move the cursor to the  beginning  of  the  line
       it's  on.   Hit  ^E  to  move the cursor to the end of the
       line.  Hit ^U or ^V for scrolling the cursor  up  or  down
       1/2  a screen's worth.  "Scrolling" means that the text on
       the screen moves, but the cursor stays at the  same  place
       relative to the screen.  Hit ^K U or ^K V to move the cur-
       sor to the beginning or the end of the file.  Look at  the
       help  screens  in  the editor to find even more delete and
       movement commands.

       If you make a mistake, you can hit ^  to  "undo"  it.   On
       most  keyboards you hit just ^- to get ^ , but on some you
       might have to hold both the Shift and Control keys down at
       the  same time to get it.  If you "undo" too much, you can
       "redo" the changes back into existence by hitting ^^ (type
       this with just ^6 on most keyboards).


JOE(1) JOE(1)

       If  you were editing in one place within the file, and you
       then temporarily had to look  or  edit  some  other  place
       within the file, you can get back to the original place by
       hitting ^K -.  This command actually returns  you  to  the
       last  place  you  made a change in the file.  You can step
       through a history of places with ^K - and  ^K  =,  in  the
       same  way you can step through the history of changes with
       the "undo" and "redo" commands.

       When you are done editing the file, hit ^K X to  exit  the
       editor.   You  will  be  prompted  for  a file name if you
       hadn't already named the file you were editing.

       When you edit a file, you actually edit only a copy of the
       file.   So  if  you decide that you don't want the changes
       you made to a file during a particular edit  session,  you
       can hit ^C to exit the editor without saving them.

       If  you  edit a file and save the changes, a "backup" copy
       of that file is created in the current directory, with a ~
       appended  to the name, which contains the original version
       of the file.

Word wrap and formatting

       If you type past the right edge of the screen in a C  lan-
       guage  or PASCAL file, the screen will scroll to the right
       to follow the cursor.  If you type past the right edge  of
       the screen in a normal file (one whose name doesn't end in
       .c, .h or .p), JOE will automatically wrap the  last  word
       onto  the  next line so that you don't have to hit Return.
       This is called word-wrap mode.  Word-wrap can be turned on
       or  off  with the ^T W command.  JOE's initialization file
       is usually set up  so  that  this  mode  is  automatically
       turned  on  for  all  non-program  files.  See the section
       below on the joerc file to change this and other defaults.

       Aside  for Word-wrap mode, JOE does not automatically keep
       paragraphs formatted like some word-processors.   Instead,
       if you need a paragraph to be reformatted, hit ^K J.  This
       command "fills in" the paragraph that the  cursor  is  in,
       fitting  as  many words in a line as is possible.  A para-
       graph, in this case, is a block of  text  separated  above
       and below by a blank line.

       The  margins  which  JOE uses for paragraph formatting and
       word-wrap can be set with the ^T L and ^T R commands.   If
       the  left margin is set to a value other than 1, then when
       you start typing at the beginning of a  line,  the  cursor
       will immediately jump to the left margin.

       If  you  want to center a line within the margins, use the
       ^K A command.


JOE(1) JOE(1)

Over-type mode

       Sometimes it's tiresome to have to delete old text  before
       or  after you insert new text.  This happens, for example,
       when you are changing a table and you want to maintain the
       column position of the right side of the table.  When this
       occurs, you can put the editor in over-type mode  with  ^T
       T.   When  the  editor is in this mode, the characters you
       type in replace existing characters, in the way an  ideal-
       ized  typewriter would.  Also, Backspace simply moves left
       instead of deleting the character to the left,  when  it's
       not  at the end or beginning of a line.  Over-type mode is
       not the natural way of dealing with  text  electronically,
       so  you  should go back to insert-mode as soon as possible
       by typing ^T T again.

       If you need to insert while you're in over-type mode,  hit
       ^@.  This inserts a single SPACE into the text.

Control and Meta characters

       Each  character  is represented by a number.  For example,
       the number for 'A' is 65 and the number  for  '1'  is  49.
       All  of the characters which you normally see have numbers
       in the range  of  32  -  126  (this  particular  arbitrary
       assignment  between  characters  and numbers is called the
       ASCII character set).  The numbers outside of this  range,
       from  0  to  255,  aren't usually displayed, but sometimes
       have other special meanings.  The number 10, for  example,
       is used for the line-breaks.  You can enter these special,
       non-displayed control characters by first  hitting  `  and
       then  hitting a character in the range @ A B C ... X Y Z [
       ^ ]    to get the number 0 - 31, and ? to get  127.   For
       example,  if you hit ` J, you'll insert a line-break char-
       acter, or if you hit ` I, you'll insert  a  TAB  character
       (which  does  the  same thing the TAB key does).  A useful
       control character to enter is 12 (` L), which causes  most
       printers to advance to the top of the page.  You'll notice
       that JOE displays this character as an underlined L.   You
       can  enter  the characters above 127, the meta characters,
       by first hitting ^.  This adds 128 to the next  (possibly
       control) character entered.  JOE displays characters above
       128 in inverse-video.  Some foreign languages, which  have
       more letters than English, use the meta characters for the
       rest of their alphabet.  You have to  put  the  editor  in
       ASIS  mode (described later) to have these passed untrans-
       lated to the terminal.


       If you hit TAB at any file name prompt, joe  will  attempt
       to  complete the name you entered as much as possible.  If
       it couldn't complete the entire name,  because  there  are
       more than one possible completions, joe beeps.  If you hit
       TAB again, joe list the  completions.   You  can  use  the


JOE(1) JOE(1)

       arrow  keys  to  move around this directory menu and press
       RETURN or SPACE to select an item.  If you press the first
       letter  of  one  of  the  directory  entries,  it  will be
       selected, or if more than one entry  has  the  same  first
       letter,  the  cursor  will jump between those entries.  If
       you select a subdirectory or ..,  the  directory  name  is
       appended  to  the  prompt  and the new directory is loaded
       into the menu.  You can hit Backspace to go  back  to  the
       previous directory.

       Most  prompts  record  a history of the responses you give
       them.  You can hit up and down arrow to step through these

       Prompts  are  actually  single line windows with no status
       line, so you can use any editing command that you normally
       use  on  text  within  the prompts.  The prompt history is
       actually just other lines of the same "prompt file".  Thus
       you  can  can  search  backwards though the prompt history
       with the normal ^K F command if you want.

       Since prompts are windows, you can also switch out of them
       with ^K P and ^K N.

Where am I?

       Hit  ^K  SPACE  to have JOE report the line number, column
       number, and byte number on the last line  of  the  screen.
       The  number associated with the character the cursor is on
       (its ASCII code) is also shown.  You  can  have  the  line
       number and/or column number always displayed on the status
       line by setting placing the appropriate  escape  sequences
       in the status line setup strings.  Edit the joerc file for

File operations

       You can hit ^K D to save the current file (possibly  under
       a  different  name  from  what  the file was called origi-
       nally).  After the file is saved, you can hit ^K E to edit
       a different file.

       If  you  want to save only a selected section of the file,
       see the section on Blocks below.

       If you want to include another file  in  the  file  you're
       editing, use ^K R to insert it.

Temporarily suspending the editor

       If  you need to temporarily stop the editor and go back to
       the shell, hit ^K Z.  You might want to do  this  to  stop
       whatever  you're  editing  and answer an e-mail message or
       read this man page, for example.  You have to type  fg  or


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       exit (you'll be told which when you hit ^K Z) to return to
       the editor.

Searching for text

       Hit ^K F to have the editor search forwards  or  backwards
       for  a  text  fragment  (string)  for  you.   You  will be
       prompted for the  text  to  search  for.   After  you  hit
       Return,  you  are prompted to enter options.  You can just
       hit Return again to have  the  editor  immediately  search
       forwards  for  the  text,  or you can enter one or more of
       these options:

b Search backwards instead of forwards.

       i      Treat uppercase and lower case letters as the  same
              when  searching.   Normally uppercase and lowercase
              letters are considered to be different.
       nnn    (where nnn is a number) If you enter a number,  JOE
              searches  for the Nth occurrence of the text.  This
              is useful for going to  specific  places  in  files
              structured in some regular manner.
       r      Replace  text.  If you enter the r option, then you
              will be  further  prompted  for  replacement  text.
              Each  time  the  editor  finds the search text, you
              will be prompted as to whether you want to  replace
              the  found  search  text with the replacement text.
              You hit: y to replace the text and  then  find  the
              next occurrence, n to not replace this text, but to
              then find the next occurrence, r to replace all  of
              the remaining occurrences of the search text in the
              remainder of the file without asking for  confirma-
              tion  (subject  to  the nnn option above), or ^C to
              stop searching and replacing.

You can hit ^L to repeat the previous search.

Regular Expressions

       A number of special character sequences may be entered  as
       search text:


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       ?     This finds exactly one character.  For example,  if
              you  give  A?B  as  the search text, JOE will find
              AXB, but not AB or AXXB.
      ^ $  These match the beginning and end of a  line.   For
              example,  if  you give^test$, then JOE with find
              test on a line by itself.
       < >  These match the beginning and end of a  word.   For
              example, if you give <is>, then joe will find
              whole words which have  the  sub-string  is  within
       [...] This  matches  any  single  character which appears
              within the brackets.  For example, if  [Tt]his  is
              entered  as  the search string, then JOE finds both
              This and this.  Ranges of characters can be entered
              within the brackets.  For example, [A-Z] finds any
              uppercase letter.  If the first character given  in
              the brackets is ^, then JOE tries to find any char-
              acter not given in the the brackets.

language expression. For example, if you search

for malloc( calls to malloc, even if there was a ) within the


       +     This finds zero or  more  of  the  character  which
              immediately  follows  the  +.  For example, if you
              give [ ]+[ ], where the  characters  within  the
              brackets are both SPACE and TAB, then JOE will find

\ Matches a single .

       0     This finds the special  end-of-line  or  line-break
       A  number of special character sequences may also be given
       in the replacement string:
      &     This gets replaced by the text  which  matched  the
              search  string.   For example, if the search string
              was <>, which matches words, and you give "",


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then joe will put quote marks around words.

       0 - 9
              These  get replaced with the text which matched the
              Nth*, ?, +,               string.
       \    Use  this if you need to put a  in the replacement
       0     Use this if you need to put  a  line-break  in  the
              replacement string.

       Some examples:

       Suppose  you  have a list of addresses, each on a separate
       line, which starts with "Address:" and  has  each  element
       separated by commas.  Like so:

       Address: S. Holmes, 221b Baker St., London, England

       If  you  wanted  to rearrange the list, to get the country
       first, then the city, then the person's name, and then the
       address, you could do this:

       Type ^K F to start the search, and type:


       to  match  "Address:",  the four comma-separated elements,
       and then the end of the line.  When asked for options, you
       would type r to replace the string, and then type:


       To shuffle the information the way you want it. After hit-
       ting return, the search would begin, and the  sample  line
       would be changed to:

       Address: England, London, S. Holmes, 221b Baker St.


       If  you want to move, copy, save or delete a specific sec-
       tion of text, you  can  do  it  with  highlighted  blocks.
       First, move the cursor to the start of the section of text
       you want to work on, and press ^K B.  Then move the cursor
       to  the  character just after the end of the text you want
       to affect and press ^K K.  The text between the ^K  B  and
       ^K  K  should  become  highlighted.  Now you can move your


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       cursor to someplace else in your document and press  ^K  M
       to move the highlighted text there.  You can press ^K C to
       make a copy of the highlighted text and insert it to where
       the cursor is positioned.  ^K Y to deletes the highlighted
       text.  ^K W, writes the highlighted text to a file.

       A very useful command is ^K /, which filters  a  block  of
       text through a unix command.  For example, if you select a
       list of words with ^K B and ^K K, and then type ^K / sort,
       the  list  of  words  will be sorted.  Another useful unix
       command for ^K /, is tr.  If you type ^K  /  tr  a-z  A-Z,
       then  all  of the letters in the highlighted block will be
       converted to uppercase.

       After you are finished with some block operations, you can
       just  leave  the  highlighting on if you don't mind it (of
       course, if you accidently hit ^K Y  without  noticing...).
       If  it really bothers you, however, just hit ^K B ^K K, to
       turn the highlighting off.

Indenting program blocks

       Auto-indent mode toggled with the ^T I command.  The joerc
       is  normally  set  up so that files with names ending with
       .p, .c or .h have auto-indent mode  enabled.   When  auto-
       indent mode is enabled and you hit Return, the cursor will
       be placed in the same column that the first  non-SPACE/TAB
       character was in on the original line.

       You can use the ^K , and ^K . commands to shift a block of
       text to the left or right.  If no highlighting is set when
       you  give  these commands, the program block the cursor is
       located in will be selected, and will be moved  by  subse-
       quent ^K , and ^K . commands.  The number of columns these
       commands shift by can be set through a ^T option.


       You can edit more than one file at the same time  or  edit
       two  or  more  different  places  of the same file.  To do
       this, hit ^K O, to split the screen into two windows.  Use
       ^K P or ^K N to move the cursor into the top window or the
       lower window.  Use ^K E to edit a new file in one  of  the
       windows.   A  window  will  go away when you save the file
       with ^K X or abort the file with ^C.  If you abort a  file
       which  exists in two windows, one of the window goes away,
       not the file.

       You can hit ^K O within a window to create even more  win-
       dows.  If you have too many windows on the screen, but you
       don't want to eliminate them, you can hit ^K I.  This will
       show  only  the  window  the cursor is in, or if there was
       only one window on the screen to begin with,  try  to  fit
       all  hidden  windows  on  the  screen.   If there are more


JOE(1) JOE(1)

       windows than can fit on the screen, you can hit  ^K  N  on
       the  bottom-most  window or ^K P on the top-most window to
       get to them.

       If you gave more than one file name to JOE on the  command
       line, each file will be placed in a different window.

       You can change the height of the windows with the ^K G and
       ^K T commands.

Keyboard macros

       Macros allow you to record  a  series  of  keystrokes  and
       replay them with the press of two keys.  This is useful to
       automate repetitive tasks.  To start  a  macro  recording,
       hit  ^K  [  followed  by a number from 0 to 9.  The status
       line will display (Macro n recording...).   Now,  type  in
       the  series  of  keystrokes  that  you  want to be able to
       repeat.  The commands  you  type  will  have  their  usual
       effect. Hit ^K ] to stop recording the macro.  Hit ^K fol-
       lowed by the number you recorded the macro in  to  execute
       one iteration of the key-strokes.

       For  example, if you want to put "**" in front of a number
       of lines, you can type:

       ^K [ ^A ** <down arrow> ^K ]

       Which starts the macro recording, moves the cursor to  the
       beginning of the line, inserts "**", moves the cursor down
       one line, and then ends the recording. Since  we  included
       the  key-strokes needed to position the cursor on the next
       line, we can repeatedly use this macro without  having  to
       move  the  cursor  ourselves,  something you should always
       keep in mind when recording a macro.

       If you find that the macro you are recording itself has  a
       repeated  set of key-strokes in it, you can record a macro
       within the macro, as long as you  use  a  different  macro
       number.   Also  you can execute previously recorded macros
       from within new macros.


       You can use the repeat command, ^K , to repeat  a  macro,
       or  any  other  edit command or even a normal character, a
       specified number of times.  Hit ^K , type in  the  number
       of  times  you want the command repeated and press Return.
       The next edit command you now give will be  repeated  that
       many times.

       For example, to delete the next 20 lines of text, type:


JOE(1) JOE(1)

^K 20<return>^Y

Rectangle mode

       Type  ^T X to have ^K B and ^K K select rectangular blocks
       instead of stream-of-text blocks.  This mode is useful for
       moving,  copying, deleting or saving columns of text.  You
       can also filter columns of text with the ^K / command-  if
       you  want  to sort a column, for example.  The insert file
       command, ^K R is also effected.

       When rectangle mode is selected, over-type  mode  is  also
       useful  (^T  T).  When over-type mode is selected, rectan-
       gles  will  replace  existing  text  instead  of   getting
       inserted  before it.  Also the delete block command (^K Y)
       will clear the selected rectangle  with  SPACEs  and  TABs
       instead of deleting it.  Over-type mode is especially use-
       ful for the filter block command (^K  /),  since  it  will
       maintain the original width of the selected column.

Tag search

       If  you  are  editing  a  large C program with many source
       files, you can use the ctags program to  generate  a  tags
       file.   This  file  contains a list of program symbols and
       the files and positions where  the  symbols  are  defined.
       The  ^K  ;  command  can be used to lookup a symbol (func-
       tions, defined constants, etc.), load the file  where  the
       symbol is defined into the current window and position the
       cursor to where the symbol is defined.  ^K ;  prompts  you
       for  the  symbol  you want, but uses the symbol the cursor
       was on as a default.  Since ^K ; loads the definition file
       into  the  current  window, you probably want to split the
       window first with ^K O, to have both the original file and
       the definition file loaded.

Shell windows

       Hit  ^K  ' to run a command shell in one of JOE's windows.
       When the cursor is at the end of a shell window (use ^K  V
       if  it's  not),  whatever  you type is passed to the shell
       instead of the window.  Any output from the shell or  from
       commands  executed  in  the shell is appended to the shell
       window (the cursor will follow this output if it's at  the
       end  of  the  shell  window).   This command is useful for
       recording the results of shell commands- for  example  the
       output  of make, the result of grepping a set of files for
       a  string,  or  directory  listings  from  FTP   sessions.
       Besides  typeable characters, the keys ^C, Backspace, DEL,
       Return and ^D are passed to the  shell.   Type  the  shell
       exit command to stop recording shell output.  If you press
       ^C in a shell window, when the cursor is not at the end of
       the window, the shell is killed.


JOE(1) JOE(1)

Environment variables

       For  JOE  to operate correctly, a number of other environ-
       ment settings must be correct.  The throughput (baud rate)
       of  the  connection between the computer and your terminal
       must be  set  correctly  for  JOE  to  update  the  screen
       smoothly  and  allow typeahead to defer the screen update.
       Use the stty nnn command to set this.  You want to set  it
       as  close  as possible to actual throughput of the connec-
       tion.  For example, if you are connected via a  1200  baud
       modem,  you  want  to use this value for stty.  If you are
       connected via 14.4k modem, but the terminal server you are
       connected  to  connects  to  the computer a 9600 baud, you
       want to set your speed as 9600  baud.   The  special  baud
       rate  of 38400 or extb is used to indicate that you have a
       very-high speed connection, such as a memory  mapped  con-
       sole  or  an X-window terminal emulator.  If you can't use
       stty to set the actual throughput (perhaps  because  of  a
       modem  communicating with the computer at a different rate
       than it's communicating over the phone line), you can  put
       a  numeric  value in the BAUD environment variable instead
       (use setenv BAUD 9600 for csh or  BAUD=9600;  export  BAUD
       for sh).

       The  TERM  environment variable must be set to the type of
       terminal  you're  using.    If   the   size   (number   of
       lines/columns)  of your terminal is different from what is
       reported in the TERMCAP or TERMINFO  entry,  you  can  set
       this  with the stty rows nn cols nn command, or by setting
       the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.

       JOE normally expects that flow control  between  the  com-
       puter and your terminal to use ^S/^Q handshaking (I.E., if
       the computer is sending characters too fast for your  ter-
       minal, your terminal sends ^S to stop the output and ^Q to
       restart it).  If the  flow  control  uses  out-of-band  or
       hardware handshaking or if your terminal is fast enough to
       always keep up with the computer output and  you  wish  to
       map  ^S/^Q  to  edit commands, you can set the environment
       variable NOXON to have JOE attempt to turn off ^S/^Q hand-
       shaking.   If the connection between the computer and your
       terminal uses no handshaking and your terminal is not fast
       enough to keep up with the output of the computer, you can
       set the environment variable DOPADDING to  have  JOE  slow
       down  the  output  by interspersing PAD characters between
       the terminal screen update sequences.


       Wherever JOE expects you to enter a file name, whether  on
       the  command line or in prompts within the editor, you may
       also type:


JOE(1) JOE(1)

              Read or write data to or from a shell command.  For
              example, use joe '!ls' to get a copy of your direc-
              tory listing to edit or from within the editor  use
              ^K  D  !mail to send the file
              being edited to me.
              Use this to have JOE append the edited text to  the
              end of the file "filename."
              Use  this  to  access  a fixed section of a file or
              device.  START and SIZE may be entered  in  decimal
              (ex.:  123)  octal (ex.: 0777) or hexadecimal (ex.:
              0xFF).  For example, use joe /dev/fd0,508,2 to edit
              bytes  508  and  509  of  the first floppy drive in

The joerc file

       ^T options, the help screens and the key-sequence to  edi-
       tor  command bindings are all defined in JOE's initializa-
       tion file.  If you make a copy of this  file  (which  nor-
       mally  resides  in  /usr/local/lib/joerc) to $HOME/.joerc,
       you can customize these setting to your liking.  The  syn-
       tax  of  the  initialization file should be fairly obvious
       and there are further instruction in it.


       JOE was writen by  Joseph  H.  Allen.   If  you  have  bug
       reports      or      questions,     e-mail     them     to             Larry             Foard
       (        and        Gary        Gray
       ( also helped  with  the  creation  of