*vim_ref.txt*   For Vim version 4.5.  Last modification: 1996 Oct 2

VIM REFERENCE MANUAL

By Bram Moolenaar

There is a contents listing at the end of this document.

This manual mostly assumes that there is only one window.  The commands and
options for multiple windows and buffers are explained in |vim_win.txt|.

This manual describes running Vim from a normal terminal or with a terminal
emulator in a window.  See |vim_gui.txt| for the GUI version.

You can use tags to jump to the explanation of a subject.  Position the cursor
on an item name between bars (e.g., |intro|) or an option name in single
quotes (e.g., 'textwidth' ) and hit CTRL-].  This mostly also works on a
command in double quotes (e.g., ":buf").  Three special characters in the
names of the tags are not allowed.  They have been replaced with letters:
"bar" for '|', "star" for '*', and "quote" for '"'.

tag starts with	example
Normal and Visual mode	nothing		|x|
Visual mode	"v_"		|v_u|
Insert mode	"i_"		|i_<Esc>|
Command line commands	":"		|:quit|
Command line editing	"c_"		|c_<Del>|
Vim command options	"-"		|-r|
Vim options	"'"		|'shell'|

1. Introduction						*intro*
===============

Vim stands for Vi IMproved.  It used to be Vi IMitation, but there are so many
improvements that a name change was appropriate.  Vim is a text editor which
includes almost all the commands from the Unix program "Vi" and a lot of new
ones.  It is very useful for editing programs and other 8-bit ASCII text.  All
commands are given with the keyboard.  This has the advantage that you can
keep your fingers on the keyboard and your eyes on the screen.  For those who
want it, there is mouse support and a GUI version with scrollbars and menus
(see |vim_gui.txt|).

Throughout this manual the differences between Vi and Vim are mentioned in
curly braces.  See |vim_diff.txt| for a summary of the differences.

This manual refers to Vim on various machines.  There may be small differences
between different computers and terminals.  Besides the remarks given in this
document, there is a separate document for each supported system:
system			    see
Amiga				|vim_ami.txt|
Archimedes			|vim_arch.txt|
Atari MiNT              	|vim_mint.txt|
Macintosh			|vim_mac.txt|
MS-DOS				|vim_dos.txt|
OS/2				|vim_os2.txt|
Unix				|vim_unix.txt|
Win32: Windows NT / Windows 95	|vim_w32.txt|

This manual is a reference for all the Vim commands and options.  This is not
an introduction to the use of Vim.  There are many books on vi that contain a
section for beginners.

A summary of this manual can be found in the file "vim_help.txt",
|vim_help.txt|.  It can be accessed from within Vim with the <Help> or <F1>
key and with the command ":help", |:help|.  The 'helpfile' option can be set
to the name of the help file, so you can put it in any place you like.

2. Notation						*notation*
===========

[]		Characters in square brackets are optional.

*count*
[count]		An optional number that may precede the command to multiply
or iterate the command.  If no number is given, a count of one
is used, unless otherwise noted.  Note that in this manual the
[count] is not mentioned in the description of the command,
but only in the explanation.  This was done to make the
commands easier to lookup.  If the "sc" option is on
(|'showcmd'|), the (partially) entered count is shown at the
bottom of the window.  You can use <Del> to erase the last
digit (|N<Del>|).

["x]		An optional register designation where text can be stored.
See |registers|.  The x is a single character between 'a' and
'z' or 'A' and 'Z' or '"', and in some cases (with the put
command) between '0' and '9', '%', ':', or '.'.  The uppercase
and lowercase letters designate the same register, but the
lowercase letter is used to overwrite the previous register
contents, while the uppercase letter is used to append to the
previous register contents.  Without the ""x" or with """",
the stored text is put into the unnamed register.

{}		Curly braces denote parts of the command which must appear,
but which can take a number of different values.  The
differences between Vim and Vi are also given in curly braces
(this will be clear from the context).

*{motion}*
{motion}	A command that moves the cursor.  See the list in chapter 6,
|cursor_motions|.  This is used after an operator command
|operator| to move over the text that is to be operated upon.
If the motion includes a count and the operator also had a
count, the two counts are multiplied.  For example: "2d3w"
deletes six words.  The motion can also be a mouse click.  The
mouse is currently only supported for MS-DOS, Win32 and xterm
under Unix.

*{Visual}*
{Visual}	A piece of text that is started with the "v", "V", or CTRL-V
command and ended by the cursor position.  This is used
before an operator command |operator| to highlight the text
that is to be operated upon.  See the chapter on Visual mode
|Visual_mode|.

<character>	A special character from the table below or a single ASCII
character.

'character'	A single ASCII character.

<char1-char2>	A single character from the range <char1> to <char2>.  For
example: <a-z> is a lowercase letter.  Multiple ranges may be
concatenated.  For example, <a-zA-Z0-9> is any alphanumeric
character.

CTRL-{char}	{char} typed as a control character; that is, typing {char}
while holding the CTRL key down.  The case of {char} does not
matter; thus CTRL-A and CTRL-a are equivalent.  But on some
terminals, using the SHIFT key will produce another code,
don't use it then.

'option'	An option, or parameter, that can be set to a value, is
enclosed in single quotes.  See chapter 19, |options|.

"command"	In examples, the commands you can type are enclosed in double
quotes.

*key_notation*
notation	meaning		    equivalent	decimal value(s)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
<Nul>		zero			CTRL-@	  0 (stored as 10)
<BS>		backspace		CTRL-H	  8	*backspace*
<Tab>		tab			CTRL-I	  9	*tab*
*linefeed*
<NL>		linefeed		CTRL-J	 10 (used for <Nul>)
*carriage return*
<CR>		carriage return		CTRL-M	 13
<Esc>		escape			CTRL-[	 27	*escape*
<Space>		space				 32	*space*
<Del>		delete				127

<Up>		cursor-up			*cursor-up* *cursor_up*
<Down>		cursor-down			*cursor-down* *cursor_down*
<Left>		cursor-left			*cursor-left* *cursor_left*
<Right>		cursor-right			*cursor-right* *cursor_right*
<S-Up>		shift-cursor-up
<S-Down>	shift-cursor-down
<S-Left>	shift-cursor-left
<S-Right>	shift-cursor-right
<F1> - <F12>	function keys 1 to 12		*function_key* *function-key*
<S-F1> - <S-F12> shift-function keys 1 to 12
<Help>		help key
<Undo>		undo key
<Insert>	insert key
<Home>		home				*home*
<End>		end				*end*
<PageUp>	page-up				*page_up* *page-up*
<PageDown>	page-down			*page_down* *page-down*
<S-...>		shift-key			*shift*
<C-...>		control-key			*control* *ctrl*
<M-...>		alt-key or meta-key		*meta* *alt*
<t_xx>		key with "xx" entry in termcap
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: The shifted cursor keys, the help key, and the undo key are only
available on a few terminals.  On the Amiga, shifted function key 10 produces
a code (CSI) that is also used by key sequences.  It will be recognized only
after typing another key.

Note: There are two codes for the delete key.  127 is the decimal ASCII value
for the delete key, which is always recognized.  Some delete keys send another
value, in which case this value is obtained from the termcap entry "kD".  Both
values have the same effect.  Also see |:fixdel|.

Note: The keypad keys are used in the same way as the corresponding "normal"
keys.  For example, <kHome> has the same effect as <Home>.  If a keypad key
sends the same raw key code as it non-keypad equivalent, it will be recognized
as the non-keypad code.  For example, when <kHome> sends the same code as
<Home>, when pressing <kHome> Vim will think <Home> was pressed.  Mapping
<kHome> will not work then.

*<>*
Some of the examples are given in the <> notation.  The rules are:
1.  Any printable characters are typed directly, except backslash and '<'
2.  A backslash is represented with "\\", double backslash.
3.  A real '<' is represented with "\<".
4.  "<key>" means the special key typed.  This is the notation explained in
the table above.  A few examples:
<Esc>		Escape key
<C-G>		CTRL-G
<Up>			cursor up key
<C-LeftMouse>	Control- left mouse click
<S-F11>		Shifted function key 11
<M-a>		Meta- a  ('a' with bit 8 set)
<M-A>		Meta- A  ('A' with bit 8 set)
<t_kd>		"kd" termcap entry (cursor down key)

If you want to use the full <> notation in Vim, you have to remove the 'B'
flag from 'cpoptions' and make sure the '<' flag is excluded (it already is by
default).
:set cpo=ceFs
If you have the 'B' flag in 'cpoptions', then <> notation mostly still works,
but you can't escape the special meaning of key names in <> with a backslash.
To distinguish using <> with and without the 'B' flag, it's called full <>
notation if the 'B' flag is excluded.
For mapping, abbreviation and menu commands you can then copy-paste the
examples and use them directly.  Or type them literally, including the '<' and
'>' characters.  This does NOT work for other commands, like ":set" and
":autocmd"!

3. Starting Vim						*starting*
===============

3.1 Vim arguments					*vim_arguments*

Most often, Vim is started to edit a single file with the command

vim file					*-vim*

More generally, Vim is started with:

vim [options] [arglist]

If the arglist is missing, the editor will start with an empty buffer.
Otherwise exactly one out of the following three may be used to choose one
or more files to be edited.

*-file* *--*
file ..		A list of file names.  The first one will be the current file
and read into the buffer.  The cursor will be positioned on
the first line of the buffer.  To avoid a file name starting
with a '-' being interpreted as an option, precede the arglist
with "--", e.g.:
Vim -- -filename

*-t* *-tag*
-t {tag}	A tag.  "tag" is looked up in the tags file, the associated
file becomes the current file, and the associated command is
executed.  Mostly this is used for C programs.  In that case,
"tag" should be a function name.  The effect is that the file
containing that function becomes the current file and the
cursor is positioned on the start of the function (see the
section on tags, |tags|).

*-e* *-qf*
-e [errorfile]	QuickFix mode.  The file with the name [errorfile] is read
and the first error is displayed.  If [errorfile] is not
given, the 'errorfile' option is used for the file name
(default "AztecC.Err" for the Amiga, "errors.vim" for other
systems).  See section 5.5: "using the QuickFix mode",
|quickfix|.  {not in Vi}

*startup-options*
The options, if present, must precede the arglist.  The options may be given
in any order.  Single-letter options can be combined after one dash.

*-+*
+[num]		The cursor will be positioned on line "num" for the first
file being edited.  If "num" is missing, the cursor will be
positioned on the last line.

*-+/*
+/{pat}		The cursor will be positioned on the first line containing
"pat" in the first file being edited (see the section
"pattern searches" for the available search patterns,
|search_pattern|).

+{command}						*-+c* *-c*
-c {command}	"command" will be executed after the first file has been
read (and after autocommands and modelines for that file have
been processed).  "command" is interpreted as an Ex command.
If the "command" contains spaces, it must be enclosed in
double quotes (this depends on the shell that is used).
Example: vim "+set si" main.c

Note: You can use only one "+" or "-c" argument in a Vim
command.

*-r*
-r		Recovery mode.  Without a file name argument, a list of
existing swap files is given.  With a file name, a swap file
is read to recover a crashed editing session.  See the
chapter "Recovery after a crash", |crash_recovery|.

*-L*
-L		Same as -r.  {only in some versions of Vi: "List recoverable
edit sessions"}

*-v*
-v		View mode.  The 'readonly' option will be set for all the
files being edited.  You can still edit the buffer, but will
be prevented from accidentally overwriting a file.  If you
forgot that you are in View mode and did make some changes,
you can overwrite a file by adding an exclamation mark to
the Ex command, as in ":w!".  The 'readonly' option can be
reset with ":set noro" (see the options chapter, |options|).
Subsequent edits will not be done in readonly mode.  Calling
the executable "view" has the same effect as the -v option.
If your system does not support links and you do not want to
have the executable twice, you could make an alias: "alias
view vim -v".  The 'updatecount' option will be set to 10000,
meaning that the swap file will not be updated automatically
very often.  {Vi: "ex -v" means to start ex in vi mode.
"vi -v" does nothing}

*-R*
-R		Readonly mode.  Same as -v.

*-b*
-b		Binary mode.  The 'textauto', 'textmode', and 'expandtab'
options will be reset.  The 'textwidth' option is set to 0.
'modeline' is reset.  The 'binary' option is set.  This is
done after reading the vimrc/exrc files but before reading
any file in the arglist.  See also 5.6:
"Editing binary files", |edit_binary|.  {not in Vi}

*-l*
-l		Lisp mode.  Sets the 'lisp' and 'showmatch' options on.

*-H*
-H		Hebrew mode.  Sets the 'hkmap' and 'rightleft' options on.
(Only when compiled with LEFTRIGHT defined, otherwise Vim
gives an error message and exits).  {not in Vi}

*-n*
-n		No swap file will be used.  Recovery after a crash will be
impossible.  Handy if you want to view or edit a file on a
very slow medium (e.g., a floppy).  Can also be done with
":set updatecount=0".  You can switch it on again by setting
the 'updatecount' option to some value, e.g., ":set uc=100".
{not in Vi}

*-o*
-o[N]		Open N windows.  If [N] is not given, one window is opened
for every file given as argument.  If there is not enough
room, only the first few files get a window.  If there are
more windows than arguments, the last few windows will be
editing an empty file.  {not in Vi}

*-T*
-T {terminal}	Set the terminal type to "terminal".  This influences the
codes that Vim will send to your terminal.  This is normally
not needed, because Vim will be able to find out what type
of terminal you are using (See chapter 20, |terminal_info|).
{not in Vi}

*-d*
-d {device}	Amiga only: The "device" is opened to be used for editing.
Normally you would use this to set the window position and
size: "-d con:x/y/width/height", e.g.,
"-d con:30/10/600/150".  But you can also use it to start
editing on another device, e.g., AUX:.  {not in Vi}

*-x*
-x		Amiga only: Do not restart Vim to open a new window.  This
option should be used when Vim is started by a program that
will wait for the edit session to finish (e.g., mail or
readnews).  See section 3.3, |amiga_window|.  {not in Vi}

*-f*
-f		GUI only: Do not disconnect from the program that started Vim.
'f' stands for "foreground".  If omitted, the GUI forks a new
process and exits the current one.  "-f" should be used when
gvim is started by a program that will wait for the edit
session to finish (e.g., mail or readnews).  If you want gvim
never to fork, include 'f' in 'guioptions'.  Careful: You can
use "-gf" to start the GUI in the foreground, but "-fg" is
used to specify the foreground color.  {not in Vi} |gui_fork|

*-u*
-u {vimrc}	The file "vimrc" is read for initializations.  Other
initializations are skipped; see |initialization|.  This can
be used to start Vim in a special mode, with special
mappings and settings.  A shell alias can be used to make
this easy to use.  For example:
"alias vimc vim -u ~/.c_vimrc !*".
Also consider using autocommands; see |autocommand|.
When {vimrc} is equal to "NONE" (all uppercase), all
initializations from files and environment variables are
skipped.  {not in Vi}

*-i*
-i {viminfo}	The file "viminfo" is used instead of the default viminfo
file.  If the name "NONE" is used (all uppercase), no viminfo
file is read or written, even if 'viminfo' is set or when
":rv" or ":wv" are used.  See also |viminfo_file|.  {not in Vi}

*-s*
-s {scriptin}	The script file "scriptin" is read.  The characters in the
file are interpreted as if you had typed them.  The same can
be done with the command ":source! {scriptin}".  If the end
of the file is reached before the editor exits, further
characters are read from the keyboard.  See also the section
"complex repeats", |complex_repeat|.  {not in Vi}

*-w*
-w {scriptout}	All the characters that you type are recorded in the file
"scriptout", until you exit Vim.  This is useful if you want
to create a script file to be used with "vim -s" or
":source!".  When the "scriptout" file already exists, new
characters are appended.  See also the section "complex
repeats", |complex_repeat|.  {not in Vi}

*-W*
-W {scriptout}	Like -w, but do not append, overwrite an existing file.  {not
in Vi}

*-w_nr*
-w{number}	Does nothing.  This was included for Vi-compatibility.  In Vi
it sets the 'window' option, which is not implemented in Vim.

Example for using a script file to change a name in several files:
Create a file "subs.vi" containing substitute commands and a :wq
command:

:%s/Jones/Smith/g
:%s/Allen/Peter/g
:wq

Execute Vim on all files you want to change:

foreach i ( *.let ) vim -s subs.vi $i If the executable is called "view", Vim will start in Readonly mode. This is useful if you can make a hard or symbolic link from "view" to "vim". Starting in Readonly mode can also be done with "vim -v". 3.2 Workbench (Amiga only) *workbench* Vim can be started from the workbench by clicking on its icon twice. It will then start with an empty buffer. Vim can be started to edit one or more files by using a "Project" icon. The "Default Tool" of the icon must be the full pathname of the Vim executable. The name of the ".info" file must be the same as the name of the text file. By clicking on this icon twice, Vim will be started with the filename as current filename, which will be read into the buffer (if it exists). You can edit multiple files by pressing the shift key while clicking on icons, and clicking twice on the last one. The "Default Tool" for all these icons must be the same. It is not possible to give arguments to Vim, other than filenames, from the workbench. 3.3 Vim window (Amiga only) *amiga_window* Vim will run in the CLI window where it was started. If Vim was started with the "run" or "runback" command, or if Vim was started from the workbench, it will open a window of its own. Technical detail: To open the new window a little trick is used. As soon as Vim recognizes that it does not run in a normal CLI window, it will create a script file in "t:". This script file contains the same command as the one Vim was started with, and an "endcli" command. This script file is then executed with a "newcli" command (the "c:run" and "c:newcli" commands are required for this to work). The script file will hang around until reboot, or until you delete it. This method is required to get the ":sh" and ":!" commands to work correctly. But when Vim was started with the -e option (Quickfix mode) or with the -x option, this method is not used. The reason for this is that when a compiler starts Vim with the -e option it will wait for a return code. With the script trick, the compiler cannot get the return code. The -x option can be used when Vim is started by a mail program which also waits for the edit session to finish. As a consequence, the ":sh" and ":!" commands are not available when the -e or -x option is used. Vim will automatically recognize the window size and react to window resizing. Under Amiga DOS 1.3, it is advised to use the fastfonts program, "FF", to speed up display redrawing. 3.4 Initialization *initialization* *startup* This section is about the non-GUI version of Vim. See |gui_fork| for additional initialization when starting the GUI. At startup, Vim checks environment variables and files and sets values accordingly. Vim proceeds in this order: 1. Setting the 'shell' option *SHELL* *COMSPEC* The environment variable SHELL, if it exists, is used to set the 'shell' option. On MS-DOS and Win32, the COMPSPEC variable is used if SHELL is not set. 2. Setting the 'term' option *TERM* The environment variable TERM, if it exists, is used to set the 'term' option. 3. Reading Ex commands from environment variables and/or files An environment variable is read as one Ex command line, where multiple commands must be separated with '|' or "<NL>". *vimrc* *exrc* A file that contains initialization commands is called a "vimrc" file. Each line in a vimrc file is executed as an Ex command line. It is sometimes also referred to as "exrc" file. They are the same type of file, but "exrc" is what Vi always used, "vimrc" is a Vim specific name. If Vim was started with "-u filename", the file "filename" is used. All following initializations until 4. are skipped. "vim -u NONE" can be used to skip these initializations. |-u| a. For Unix the system vimrc file is read for initializations. The path of this file is shown with the ":version" command. *VIMINIT* *.vimrc* *_vimrc* *EXINIT* *.exrc* *_exrc* b. Four places are searched for initializations. The first that exists is used, the others are ignored. - The environment variable VIMINIT - The user vimrc file: "~/.vimrc" (for Unix and OS/2) "s:.vimrc" (for Amiga) "$VIM\_vimrc"  (for MS-DOS and Win32)
Note: For Unix, OS/2 and Amiga, when ".vimrc" does not exist,
"_vimrc" is also tried, in case an MS-DOS compatible file
system is used.  For MS-DOS and Win32 ".vimrc" is checked
after "_vimrc", in case long file names are used.
If $VIM is not set,$HOME is used.
-  The environment variable EXINIT
-  The user exrc file:
"~/.exrc"      (for Unix and OS/2)
"s:.exrc"      (for Amiga)
"$VIM\_exrc" (for MS-DOS and Win32). c. If the 'exrc' option is on (which is not the default), the current directory is searched for three files. The first that exists is used, the others are ignored. - The file ".vimrc" (for Unix, Amiga and OS/2) "_vimrc" (for MS-DOS and Win32) - The file "_vimrc" (for Unix, Amiga and OS/2) ".vimrc" (for MS-DOS and Win32) - The file ".exrc" (for Unix, Amiga and OS/2) "_exrc" (for MS-DOS and Win32) 4. Setting 'shellpipe' and 'shellredir' The 'shellpipe' and 'shellredir' options are set according to the value of the 'shell' option, unless they have been set before. This means that Vim will figure out the values of 'shellpipe' and 'shellredir' for you, unless you have set them yourself. 5. Read the viminfo file If the 'viminfo' option is not empty, the viminfo file is read. The default is empty, so 'viminfo' must have been set by one of the previous initializations. See |viminfo_file|. Some hints on using initializations: Standard setup: Create a vimrc file to set the default settings and mappings for all your edit sessions. Put it in a place so that it will be found by 3b: ~/.vimrc (Unix and OS/2) s:.vimrc (Amiga)$VIM\_vimrc	(MS-DOS and Win32)

Local setup:
Put all commands that you need for editing a specific directory only into a
vimrc file and place it in that directory under the name ".vimrc" ("_vimrc"
for MS-DOS and Win32).  NOTE: To make Vim look for these special files you
have to turn on the option 'exrc'.  See |trojan_horse| too.

System setup:
This only applies if you are managing a Unix system with several users and
want to set the defaults for all users.  Create a vimrc file with commands
for default settings and mappings and put it in the place that is given with
the ":version" command.

Saving the current state of Vim to a file:
Whenever you have changed values of options or when you have created a
mapping, then you may want to save them in a vimrc file for later use.  See
|save_settings| about saving the current state of settings to a file.

Avoiding setup problems for Vi users:
Vi uses the variable EXINIT and the file "~/.exrc".  So if you do not want to
interfere with Vi, then use the variable VIMINIT and the file "vimrc" instead.

Amiga environment variables:
On the Amiga, two types of environment variables exist.  The ones set with the
DOS 1.3 (or later) setenv command are recognized.  See the AmigaDos 1.3
manual.  The environment variables set with the old Manx Set command (before
version 5.0) are not recognized.

MS-DOS line separators:
On MS-DOS-like systems (MS-DOS itself, Win32, and OS/2), Vim assumes that all
the vimrc files have <CR><NL> pairs as line separators.  This will give
problems if you have a file with only <NL>s and have a line like
":map xx yy^M".  The trailing ^M will be ignored.

Avoiding trojan horses:					*trojan_horse*
While reading the "vimrc" or the "exrc" file in the current directory, some
commands can be disabled for security reasons by setting the 'secure' option.
This is always done when executing the command from a tags file.  Otherwise it
would be possible that you accidentally use a vimrc or tags file that somebody
else created and contains nasty commands.  The disabled commands are the ones
that start a shell, the ones that write to a file, and ":autocmd".  The ":map"
commands are echoed, so you can see which keys are being mapped.
If you want Vim to execute all commands in a local vimrc file, you
can reset the 'secure' option in the EXINIT or VIMINIT environment variable or
in the global "exrc" or "vimrc" file.  This is not possible in "vimrc" or
"exrc" in the current directory, for obvious reasons.
On Unix systems, this only happens if you are not the owner of the
vimrc file.  Warning: If you unpack an archive that contains a vimrc or exrc
file, it will be owned by you.  You won't have the security protection.  Check
the vimrc file before you start Vim in that directory, or reset the 'exrc'
option.  Some Unix systems allow a user to do "chown" on a file.  This makes
it possible for another user to create a nasty vimrc and make you the owner.
Be careful!
When using tag search commands, executing the search command (the last
part of the line in the tags file) is always done in secure mode.  This works
just like executing a command from a vimrc/exrc in the current directory.

*slow_start*
If Vim takes a long time to start up, there may be a few causes:
- If the Unix version was compiled with the GUI and/or X11 (check the output
of ":version" for "+GUI" and "+X11"), it may need to load shared libraries
and connect to the X11 server.  Try compiling a version with GUI and X11
disabled.  This also should make the executable smaller.
- If you have "viminfo" enabled, the loading of the viminfo file may take a
while.  You can find out if this is the problem by disabling viminfo for a
moment (use the Vim argument "-i NONE", |-i|).  Try reducing the number of
lines stored in a register with ":set viminfo='20\"50".
|viminfo_file|.

3.5 Suspending						*suspend*

*CTRL-Z* *v_CTRL-Z*
CTRL-Z			On Unix systems: Suspend Vim.  On other systems:
start a new shell (like ":sh").  Same as ":stop".
Works in Normal and in Visual mode.  In Insert and
Command-line mode, the CTRL-Z is inserted as a normal
character.

:sus[pend][!]	or			*:sus* *:suspend* *:st* *:stop*
:st[op][!]		Suspend the editor.  If the '!' is not given, the
buffer was changed, 'autowrite' is set, and a filename
is known, the buffer will be written.

On many Unix systems, it is possible to suspend Vim with CTRL-Z.  This is only
possible in Normal and Visual mode (see next chapter, |vim_modes|).  Vim will
continue if you make it the foreground job again.  On other systems, CTRL-Z
will start a new shell.  This is the same as the ":sh" command.  Vim will
continue if you exit from the shell.

3.6 The viminfo file					*viminfo_file*

The viminfo file is used to store:
- The command line history.
- The search string history.
- Contents of registers.
- Marks for several files.
- File marks, pointing to locations in files.
- Last search/substitute pattern (for 'n' and '&').

The viminfo file is only supported when Vim has been compiled with VIMINFO
defined.  If the output of ":version" contains "+viminfo" then it was; if it
contains "-viminfo" then it wasn't.  By default, VIMINFO is defined.

When Vim is started and the 'viminfo' option is non-empty, the contents of
the viminfo file are read and the info can be used in the appropriate places.
The marks are not read in at startup (but file marks are).  See
|initialization| for how to set the 'viminfo' option upon startup.

When Vim is exited and 'viminfo' is non-empty, the info is stored in the
viminfo file (it's actually merged with the existing one, if one exists).  The
'viminfo' option is a string containing information about what info should be
stored, and contains limits on how much should be stored (see 'viminfo').

Marks are stored for each file separately.  When a file is read and 'viminfo'
is non-empty, the marks for that file are read from the viminfo file.  NOTE:
The marks are only written when exiting Vim, which is fine because marks are
remembered for all the files you have opened in the current editing session,
unless ":bdel" is used.  If you want to save the marks for a file that you are
about to abandon with ":bdel", use ":wv".  The '[' and ']' marks are not
stored, but the '"' mark is.  The '"' mark is very useful for jumping to the
cursor position when the file was last exited.  No marks are saved for files
that start with any string given with the "r" flag in 'viminfo'.  This can be
used to avoid saving marks for files on removable media (for MS-DOS you would
use "ra:,rb:", for Amiga "rdf0:,rdf1:,rdf2:").

*viminfo_file_marks*
Uppercase marks ('A to 'Z) are stored when writing the viminfo file.  The
numbered marks ('0 to '9) are a bit special.  When the viminfo file is written
(when exiting or with the ":wviminfo" command), '0 is set to the current cursor
position and file.  The old '0 is moved to '1, '1 to '2, etc.  This
resembles what happens with the "1 to "9 delete registers.  If the current
cursor position is already present in '0 to '9, it is moved to '0, to avoid
having the same position twice.  The result is that with "'0", you can jump
back to the file and line where you exited Vim.

The default name of the viminfo file is "$HOME/.viminfo" for Unix, "s:.viminfo" for Amiga, "$VIM\viminfo" for MS-DOS and Win32.  The "-i" Vim
argument can be used to set another file name, |-i|.  For the commands below,
another file name can be given, overriding the default and the name given with
"-i".  When the file name given with the "-i" Vim argument is "NONE"
(all uppercase), no viminfo file is ever read or written.

Two commands can be used to read and write the viminfo file manually.  This
can be used to exchange registers between two running Vim programs: First
type ":wv" in one and then ":rv" in the other.  Note that if the register
already contained something, then ":rv!" would be required.  Also note
however that this means everything will be overwritten with information from
the first Vim, including the command line history, etc.

The viminfo file itself can be edited by hand too, although we suggest you
start with an existing one to get the format right.  It is reasonably
self-explanatory once you're in there.  This can be useful in order to
create a second file, say "~/.my_viminfo" which could contain certain
settings that you always want when you first start Vim.  For example, you
can preload registers with particular data, or put certain commands in the
command line history.  A line in your .vimrc file like
rviminfo! ~/.my_viminfo
can be used to load this information.  You could even have different viminfos
for different types of files (e.g., C code) and load them based on the file
name, using the ":autocmd" command (see |:autocmd|).

*viminfo_errors*
When Vim detects an error while reading a viminfo file, it will not overwrite
that file.  If there are more than 10 errors, Vim stops reading the viminfo
file.  This was done to avoid accidently destroying a file when the filename
of the viminfo file is wrong.  This could happen when accidently typing "vim
-i file" when you wanted "vim -v file" (yes, somebody accidently did that!).
If you want to overwrite a viminfo file with an error in it, you will either
have to fix the error, or delete the file (while Vim is running, so most of
the information will be restored).

*:rv* *:rviminfo*
:rv[iminfo][!] [file]	Read from viminfo file [file] (default: see above).
If [!] is given, then any information that is
already set (registers, marks, etc.) will be
overwritten.  {not in Vi}

*:wv* *:wviminfo*
:wv[iminfo][!] [file]	Write to viminfo file [file] (default: see above).
The information in the file is first read in to make
a merge between old and new info.  When [!] is used,
the old information is not read first, only the
internal info is written.  If 'viminfo' is empty, marks
for up to 100 files will be written.  {not in Vi}

4. Modes						*vim_modes*
========

4.1 Introduction

Vim has four BASIC modes:

Normal mode		In Normal mode you can enter all the editor
commands.  If you start the editor you are in this
mode (unless you have set the 'insertmode' option,
see below).  This is also known as command mode.

Visual mode		This is like Normal mode, but the movement commands
extend a highlighted area.  When a non-movement
command is used, it is executed for the highlighted
area.  See |Visual_mode|.

Insert mode		In Insert mode the text you type is inserted into the
buffer.  If the 'showmode' option is on (which is
default), the string "-- INSERT --" is shown at the
bottom of the window.  |mode_ins_repl|

Command-line mode	In Command-line mode you can enter one line of text
at the bottom of the window.  This is for the Ex
commands, ":", the pattern search commands, "?" and
"/", and the filter command, "!".  |mode_cmdline|

There are two ADDITIONAL modes:

Replace mode		Replace mode is a special case of Insert mode.  You
can do the same things as in Insert mode, but for
each character you enter, one character of the existing
text is deleted.  If the 'showmode' option is on,
(which is the default), the string "-- REPLACE --" is
shown at the bottom of the window.  |replace_mode|

Insert command mode	Entered when CTRL-O given in Insert mode.  This is
like Normal mode, but after executing one command Vim
returns to Insert mode.  The string "-- (insert) --"
is shown at the bottom of the window.

4.2 Switching from mode to mode				*mode_switching*

If for any reason you do not know which mode you are in, you can always get
back to Normal mode by typing <Esc> twice.  You will know you are back in
Normal mode when you see the screen flash or hear the bell after you type
<Esc>.

- go from Normal mode to Visual mode by giving one of the commands "vV^V"
- go from Normal mode to Insert mode by giving one of the commands
"iIaAoOcCsS".
- go from Normal mode to Replace mode with the "R" command (not the "r"
command!).
- go from Normal mode to Command-line mode with the one of the commands
":/?!".

*i_esc*
- go from Insert or Replace mode to Normal mode with <Esc> (twice in some
rare cases).
- go from Visual mode to Normal mode by giving a non-movement command, which
causes the command to be executed, or by hitting <Esc> or 'v', which does
nothing.
- go from Command-line mode to Normal mode by:
- hitting <CR> or <NL>, which causes the entered command to be executed
- deleting the complete line (e.g., with CTRL-U) and giving a final <BS>
- hitting CTRL-C or <Esc>, which quits the command line without executing
the command.
In the last case <Esc> may be the character defined with the 'wildchar'
option, in which case it will start command line completion.  You can ignore
that and type <Esc> again.  {Vi: when hitting <Esc> the command line is
executed.  This is unexpected for most people; therefore it was changed in
Vim.  But when the <Esc> is part of a mapping, the command line is executed.
If you want the Vi behaviour also when typing <Esc>, use ":cmap ^V<Esc>
^V^M"}

- go from Insert mode to Replace mode by hitting <Insert>.
- go from Replace mode to Insert mode by hitting <Insert>.
- go from Visual mode to Command-line mode by hitting ':'.  The line numbers
of the highlighted area will be inserted in the command line.

If the 'insertmode' option is on, editing a file will start in Insert mode.

4.3 Insert and Replace mode				*mode_ins_repl*

If you are working in a special language mode when inserting text, see the
'langmap' option, |'langmap'|, on how to avoid switching this mode on and off
all the time.

4.3.1 special keys					*ins_special_keys*

In Insert and Replace mode, the following characters have a special meaning;
other characters are inserted directly.  To insert one of these special
characters into the buffer, precede it with CTRL-V.  To insert a <Nul>
character use "CTRL-V CTRL-@" or "CTRL-V 000".  On some systems, you have to
use "CTRL-V 003" to insert a CTRL-C.

char		action
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
*i_CTRL-[* *i_<Esc>*
<Esc> or CTRL-[	End insert or Replace mode, go back to Normal mode.  Finish
abbreviation.
*i_CTRL-C*
CTRL-C		Quit insert mode, go back to Normal mode.  Do not check for
abbreviations.

*i_CTRL-@*
CTRL-@		Insert previously inserted text and stop insert.  {Vi: only
when typed as first char, only up to 128 chars}
*i_CTRL-A*
CTRL-A		Insert previously inserted text.  {not in Vi}

*i_CTRL-H* *i_<BS>*
<BS> or CTRL-H	Delete the character before the cursor (see below).
See |:fixdel| if your <BS> does not do what you want.
{Vi: does not delete autoindents}
*i_<Del>*
<Del>		Delete the character under the cursor.  If the cursor is at
the end of the line, and the 'backspace' option is non-zero,
delete the newline; the next line is appended after the
current one.  See |:fixdel| if your <Del> key does not do what
you want.  {not in Vi}
*i_CTRL-W*
CTRL-W		Delete the word before the cursor (see below).  See the
section "word motions", |word_motions|, for the definition of
a word.
*i_CTRL-U*
CTRL-U		Delete all entered characters in the current line (see
below).

*i_CTRL-I* *i_<Tab>*
<Tab> or CTRL-I Insert a tab.  If the 'expandtab' option is on, the
equivalent number of spaces is inserted (use CTRL-V <Tab> to
avoid the expansion).  See also the 'smarttab' option and
section 4.3.4, |ins_expandtab|.
*i_CTRL-J* *i_<NL>*
<NL> or CTRL-J	Begin new line.
*i_CTRL-M* *i_<CR>*
<CR> or CTRL-M	Begin new line.
*i_CTRL-K*
CTRL-K {char1} {char2}
Enter digraph (see 4.7, |digraphs|).  When {char1} is a special
key, the code for that key is inserted.  Neither char is
considered for mapping.  {not in Vi}

CTRL-N		Find next keyword (see 4.3.6, |i_CTRL-N|).  {not in Vi}
CTRL-P		Find previous keyword (see 4.3.6, |i_CTRL-P|).  {not in Vi}

CTRL-R <0-9a-z"%:.->				*i_CTRL-R*
Insert the contents of register.  Between typing CTRL-R and
the second character '"' will be displayed to indicate that
you are expected to enter the name of a register.
The text is inserted as if you typed it, but mappings and
abbreviations are not used.  If you have options like
'textwidth', 'formatoptions', or 'autoindent' set, this will
influence what will be inserted.  This is different from what
happens with the "p" command and pasting with the mouse.
Special registers:
'"'	the unnamed register, containing the text of
the last delete or yank
'%'	the current file name
':'	the last command line
'.'	the last inserted text
'-'	the last small (less than a line) delete
See |registers| about registers.  {not in Vi}

*i_CTRL-T*
CTRL-T		Insert one shiftwidth of indent at the start of the current
line.  The indent is always rounded to a 'shiftwidth' (this is
vi compatible).  {Vi: only when in indent}
*i_CTRL-D*
CTRL-D		Delete one shiftwidth of indent at the start of the current
line.  The indent is always rounded to a 'shiftwidth' (this is
vi compatible).  {Vi: CTRL-D works only when used after
autoindent}
*i_0_CTRL-D*
0 CTRL-D	Delete all indent in the current line.  {Vi: CTRL-D works
only when used after autoindent}
*i_^_CTRL-D*
^ CTRL-D	Delete all indent in the current line.  The indent is
restored in the next line.  This is useful when inserting a
label.  {Vi: CTRL-D works only when used after autoindent}

*i_CTRL-V*
CTRL-V		Insert next non-digit literally.  For special keys, the
terminal code is inserted.  Up to three digits form the
decimal value of a single byte (see below |i_CTRL-V_digit|.
The non-digit and the three digits are not considered for
mapping.  {Vi: no decimal byte entry}

*i_CTRL-Q*
CTRL-Q		Same as CTRL-V.

CTRL-X		Enter CTRL-X mode.  This is a sub-mode where commands can
be given to complete words or scroll the window. See below,
|i_CTRL-X|, and in 4.3.6, |ins_completion|. {not in Vi}

*i_CTRL-E*
CTRL-E		Insert the character which is below the cursor.  {not in Vi}
*i_CTRL-Y*
CTRL-Y		Insert the character which is above the cursor.  {not in Vi}

*i_CTRL-B*
CTRL-B		Toggle the 'revins' option (B for Backwards).  Only if
compiled with RIGHTLEFT (which is not the default).  See
|ins_reverse|.  {not in Vi}
*i_CTRL-_*
CTRL-_		This key is only available if Vim was compiled with RIGHTLEFT.
Its purpose is to switch between languages while in insert
mode, as follows:
-  When in a rightleft window, revins and nohkmap are toggled,
since English will likely be inserted in this case.
-  When in a norightleft window, revins and hkmap are toggled,
since Hebrew will likely be inserted in this case.

CTRL-_ moves the cursor to the end of the typed text, unlike
CTRL-B which leaves the cursor in the same place.

right-to-left mode.  {not in Vi}

*i_<Insert>*
<Insert>	Toggle between insert and replace mode.  {not in Vi}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

The effect of the <BS>, CTRL-W, and CTRL-U depend on the 'backspace' option
(unless 'revins' is set):

backspace	action
option
0	   delete stops in column 1 and start position of insert
1	   delete stops at start position of insert
2	   delete always; CTRL-W and CTRL-U stop once at start position of
insert

If the 'backspace' option is non-zero and the cursor is in column 1 when one
of the three keys is used, the current line is joined with the previous
line.  This effectively deletes the newline in front of the cursor.  {Vi: does
not cross lines, does not delete past start position of insert}

*i_CTRL-V_digit*
With CTRL-V followed by one, two, or three digits, you can enter the decimal
value of any byte, except 10.  Normally CTRL-V is followed by three digits.
The formed byte is inserted as soon as you type the third digit.  If you type
only one or two digits and then a non-digit, the decimal value of those one
or two digits form the byte.  After that the non-digit is dealt with in the
normal way.  If you enter a value of 10, it will end up in the file as a 0.
The 10 is a <NL>, which is used internally to represent the <Nul> character.
When writing the buffer to a file, the <NL> character is translated into
<Nul>.  The <NL> character is written at the end of each line.  Thus if you
want to insert a <NL> character in a file you will have to make a line
break.  The maximum value that can be entered is 255.

*i_CTRL-X* *insert_expand*
CTRL-X enters a sub-mode where several commands can be used.  Most of these
commands do keyword completion; see 4.3.6, |ins_completion|.  These are only
available when Vim was compiled with INSERT_EXPAND defined.  If ":version"
shows "+insert_expand" then it was; if it shows "-insert_expand" then these
commands are not available.  Two commands can be used to scroll the window up
or down, without exiting insert mode:

*i_CTRL-X_CTRL-E*
CTRL-X CTRL-E		scroll window one line up.

*i_CTRL-X_CTRL-Y*
CTRL-X CTRL-Y		scroll window one line down.

After CTRL-X is pressed, each CTRL-E (CTRL-Y) scrolls the window up (down) by
one line unless that would cause the cursor to move from its current position
in the file.  As soon as another key is pressed, CTRL-X mode is exited and
that key is interpreted as in Insert mode.

4.3.2 special special keys				*ins_special_special*

The following keys are special.  They stop the current insert, do something,
and then restart insertion.  This means you can do something without getting
out of Insert mode.  This is very handy if you prefer to use the Insert mode
all the time, just like editors that don't have a separate Normal mode.  You
may also want to set the 'backspace' option to 2 and set the 'insertmode'
option.  You can use CTRL-O if you want to map a function key to a command.

The changes (inserted or deleted characters) before and after these keys can
be undone separately.  Only the last change can be redone and always behaves
like an "i" command.

char		action
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
<Up>		cursor one line up			     *i_<Up>*
<Down>		cursor one line down			     *i_<Down>*
<Left>		cursor one character left		     *i_<Left>*
<Right>		cursor one character right		     *i_<Right>*
<S-Left>	cursor one word back (like "b" command)	     *i_<S-Left>*
<S-Right>	cursor one word forward (like "w" command)   *i_<S-Right>*
<Home>		cursor to first char in the line	     *i_<Home>*
<End>		cursor to after last char in the line	     *i_<End>*
<C-Home>	cursor to first char in the file	     *i_<C-Home>*
<C-End>		cursor to after last char in the file	     *i_<C-End>*
<LeftMouse>	cursor to position of mouse click	     *i_<LeftMouse>*
<S-Up>		move window one page up			     *i_<S-Up>*
<PageUp>	move window one page up			     *i_<PageUp>*
<S-Down>	move window one page down		     *i_<S-Down>*
<PageDown>	move window one page down		     *i_<PageDown>*
CTRL-O		execute one command and return to Insert mode*i_CTRL-O*
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

The CTRL-O command sometimes has one side effect: If the cursor was beyond the
end of the line, it will be put on the last character in the line.
The shifted cursor keys are not available on all terminals.

When the 'whichwrap' option is set appropriately, the <Left> and <Right>
keys on the first/last character in the line make the cursor wrap to the
previous/next line.

4.3.3 'textwidth' and 'wrapmargin' options		*ins_textwidth*

The 'textwidth' option can be used to automatically break a line before it
gets too long.  Set the 'textwidth' option to the desired maximum line
length.  If you then type more characters (not spaces or tabs), the
last word will be put on a new line (unless it is the only word on the
line).  If you set 'textwidth' to 0, this feature is disabled.

The 'wrapmargin' option does almost the same.  The difference is that
'textwidth' has a fixed width while 'wrapmargin' depends on the width of the
screen.  When using 'wrapmargin' this is equal to using 'textwidth' with a
value equal to (columns - 'wrapmargin'), where columns is the width of the
screen.

When 'textwidth' and 'wrapmargin' are both set, 'textwidth' is used.

The line is only broken automatically when using insert mode, or when
appending to a line.  When in replace mode and the line length is not
changed, the line will not be broken.

Long lines are broken if you enter a non-white character after the margin.
The situations where a line will be broken can be restricted by adding
characters to the 'formatoptions' option:
"l"  Only break a line if it was not longer than 'textwidth' when the insert
started.
"v"  Only break at a white character that has been entered during the
current insert command.  This is mostly Vi-compatible.
"lv" Only break if the line was not longer than 'textwidth' when the insert
started and only at a white character that has been entered during the
current insert command.  Only differs from "l" when entering non-white
characters while crossing the 'textwidth' boundary.

If you want to format a block of text, you can use the "gq" operator.  Type
"gq" and a movement command to move the cursor to the end of the block.  In
many cases, the command "gq}" will do what you want (format until the end of
paragraph).  Alternatively, you can use "gqp", which will format the whole
paragraph, no matter where the cursor currently is.  Or you can use Visual
mode: hit "v", move to the end of the block, and hit "gq".  See also |gq|.

4.3.4 'expandtab' and 'smarttab' options		*ins_expandtab*

If the 'expandtab' option is on, spaces will be used to fill the amount of
whitespace of the tab.  If you want to enter a real <Tab>, type CTRL-V first.
The 'expandtab' option is off by default.  Note that in Replace mode, a single
character is replaced with several spaces.  The result of this is that the
number of characters in the line increases.  Backspacing will delete one
space at a time.  The original character will be put back for only one space
that you backspace over (the last one).  {Vi does not have the 'expandtab'
option}

*ins_smarttab*
When the 'smarttab' option is on, a <Tab> inserts 'shiftwidth' positions at
the beginning of a line and 'tabstop' positions in other places.  This means
that often spaces instead of a <Tab> character are inserted.  When 'smarttab
is off, a <Tab> always inserts 'tabstop' positions, and 'shiftwidth' is only
used for ">>" and the like.  {not in Vi}

4.3.5 Replace mode					*replace_mode*

In Replace mode, one character in the line is deleted for every character you
type.  If there is no character to delete (at the end of the line), the
typed character is appended (as in Insert mode).  Thus the number of
characters in a line stays the same until you get to the end of the line.
If a <NL> is typed, a line break is inserted and no character is deleted.

Be careful with <Tab> characters.  If you type a normal printing character in
its place, the number of characters is still the same, but the number of
columns will become smaller.

If you delete characters in Replace mode (with <BS>, CTRL-W, or CTRL-U), what
happens is that you delete the changes.  The characters that were replaced
are restored.  If you had typed past the existing text, the characters you
added are deleted.  This is effectively a character-at-a-time undo.

If the 'expandtab' option is on, a <Tab> will replace one character with
several spaces.  The result of this is that the number of characters in the
line increases.  Backspacing will delete one space at a time.  The original
character will be put back for only one space that you backspace over (the
last one).  {Vi does not have the 'expandtab' option}

4.3.6 Insert mode completion				*ins_completion*

In Insert and Replace modes, there are several commands to complete part of a
keyword or line that has been typed.  This is useful if you are using
complicated keywords (e.g., function names with capitals and underscores).
Completion can be done for:

1. Whole lines						|i_CTRL-X_CTRL-L|
2. keywords in the current file				|i_CTRL-N|
3. keywords in 'dictionary'				|i_CTRL-X_CTRL-K|
4. keywords in the current and included files		|i_CTRL-X_CTRL-I|
5. tags							|i_CTRL-X_CTRL-]|
6. file names						|i_CTRL-X_CTRL-F|
7. definitions or macros				|i_CTRL-X_CTRL-D|

All these (except 2) are done in CTRL-X mode.  This is a sub-mode of Insert
and Replace modes.  You enter CTRL-X mode by typing CTRL-X and one of the
CTRL-X commands.  You exit CTRL-X mode by typing a key that is not a valid
CTRL-X mode command.  Valid keys are the CTRL-X command itself, CTRL-N (next),
and CTRL-P (previous).

Also see the 'infercase' option if you want to adjust the case of the match.

Note: The keys that are valid in CTRL-X mode are not mapped.  This allows for
":map ^F ^X^F" to work (where ^F is CTRL-F and ^X is CTRL-X).  The key that
ends CTRL-X mode (any key that is not a valid CTRL-X mode command) is mapped.

The following mappings are suggested to make typing the completion commands
a bit easier (although they will hide other commands):
:inoremap ^] ^X^]
:inoremap ^F ^X^F
:inoremap ^D ^X^D
:inoremap ^L ^X^L

Completing whole lines					*compl_whole_line*

*i_CTRL-X_CTRL-L*
CTRL-X CTRL-L		Search backwards for a line that starts with the
same characters as in the current line before the
cursor.  Indent is ignored.  The found line is
inserted in front of the cursor.
CTRL-L	or
CTRL-P		Search backwards for next matching line.  This line
replaces the previous matching line.

CTRL-N		Search forward for next matching line.  This line
replaces the previous matching line.

Completing keywords in current file			*compl_current*

*i_CTRL-P*
*i_CTRL-N*
The keys CTRL-N and CTRL-P can be used to complete the keyword that is in
front of the cursor.  This is useful if you are writing a program that has
complicated variable names, and you want to copy a name from the text before
or after the cursor.

If there is a keyword in front of the cursor (a name made out of alphabetic
characters and characters in 'iskeyword'), it is used as the search pattern,
with "\<" prepended (meaning: start of a word).  Otherwise "\<\k\k" is used
as search pattern (start of any keyword of at least two characters).

With CTRL-N (next), the search goes forward; with CTRL-P (previous), the
search goes backward.  The first time the search starts where the cursor is.
Subsequently, the search starts at the last found position.  If you type any
other character than CTRL-P or CTRL-N, the current text is accepted and the
search pattern is forgotten.

If the search found a match, it is inserted at the cursor position.  Any
previous match is replaced.  If no match was found, Vim will beep.

In Replace mode, the number of characters that are replaced depends on the
length of the matched string.  This works like typing the characters of the
matched string in Replace mode.

If there is not a valid keyword character before the cursor, any keyword of
at least two characters is matched.
e.g., to get:
printf("(%g, %g, %g)", vector[0], vector[1], vector[2]);
just type:
printf("(%g, %g, %g)", vector[0], ^P[1], ^P[2]);

Multiple repeats of the same completion are skipped; thus a different match
will be inserted at each CTRL-N and CTRL-P (unless there is only one
matching keyword).

If there is only one completion found, then a second CTRL-P or CTRL-N will
give the message 'No other matches'.

If the only match in the file is an exact match, where no extra characters
would be typed, then the message 'Exact match only' is given (this is also
useful for checking that you typed the word correctly).

The mode (-- INSERT --) is shown, unless there is another more important
message (e.g., "Pattern not found").  This other message will stay until
another key is hit, and then the mode is shown again.

Single character matches are never included, as they usually just get in
the way of what you were really after.
e.g., to get:
printf("name = %s\n", name);
just type:
printf("name = %s\n", n^P);
or even:
printf("name = %s\n", ^P);
The 'n' in '\n' is skipped.

Completing keywords in 'dictionary'			*compl_dictionary*

*i_CTRL-X_CTRL-K*
CTRL-X CTRL-K		Search the files given with the 'dictionary' option
for words that start with the keyword in front of the
cursor.  This is like CTRL-N, but only the dictionary
files are searched, not the current file.  The found
keyword is inserted in front of the cursor.  This
could potentially be pretty slow, since all matches
are found before the first match is used.  By default,
the 'dictionary' option is empty.

CTRL-K	or
CTRL-N		Search forward for next matching keyword.  This
keyword replaces the previous matching keyword.

CTRL-P		Search backwards for next matching keyword.  This
keyword replaces the previous matching keyword.

Completing keywords in the current and included files	*compl_keyword*

The 'include' option is used to specify a line that contains an include file
name.  The 'path' option is used to search for include files.

*i_CTRL-X_CTRL-I*
CTRL-X CTRL-I		Search for the first keyword in the current and
included files that starts with the same characters
as those before the cursor.  The matched keyword is
inserted in front of the cursor.

CTRL-N		Search forwards for next matching keyword.  This
keyword replaces the previous matching keyword.
Note: CTRL-I is the same as <Tab>, which is likely to
be typed after a succesful completion, therefore
CTRL-I is not used for searching for the next match.

CTRL-P		Search backward for previous matching keyword.  This
keyword replaces the previous matching keyword.

Completing tags						*compl_tag*
*i_CTRL-X_CTRL-]*
CTRL-X CTRL-]		Search for the first tag that starts with the same
characters as before the cursor.  The matching tag is
inserted in front of the cursor.  Alphabetic
characters and characters in 'iskeyword' are used
to decide which characters are included in the tag
name (same as for a keyword).
CTRL-]	or
CTRL-N		Search forwards for next matching tag.  This tag
replaces the previous matching tag.

CTRL-P		Search backward for previous matching tag.  This tag
replaces the previous matching tag.

Completing file names					*compl_filename*
*i_CTRL-X_CTRL-F*
CTRL-X CTRL-F		Search for the first file name that starts with the
same characters as before the cursor.  The matching
file name is inserted in front of the cursor.
Alphabetic characters and characters in 'isfname'
are used to decide which characters are included in
the file name.  Note: the 'path' option is not used
here (yet).
CTRL-F	or
CTRL-N		Search forwards for next matching file name.  This
file name replaces the previous matching file name.

CTRL-P		Search backward for previous matching file name.
This file name replaces the previous matching file
name.

Completing definitions or macros			*compl_define*

The 'define' option is used to specify a line that contains a definition.
The 'include' option is used to specify a line that contains an include file
name.  The 'path' option is used to search for include files.

*i_CTRL-X_CTRL-D*
CTRL-X CTRL-D		Search in the current and included files for the
first definition (or macro) name that starts with
the same characters as before the cursor.  The found
definition name is inserted in front of the cursor.
CTRL-D	or
CTRL-N		Search forwards for next matching macro name.  This
macro name replaces the previous matching macro
name.

CTRL-P		Search backward for previous matching macro name.
This macro name replaces the previous matching macro
name.

4.4 Command-line mode					*mode_cmdline* *:*

Command-line mode is used to enter Ex commands (":"), search patterns
("/" and "?"), and filter commands ("!").

4.4.1 Command line editing				*cmdline_editing*

Normally characters are inserted in front of the cursor position.  You can
move around in the command line with the left and right cursor keys.  With the
<Insert> key, you can toggle between inserting and overstriking characters.
{Vi: can only alter the last character in the line}

Note that if your keyboard does not have working cursor keys or any of the
other special keys, you can use ":cnoremap" to define another key for them.
For example, to define tcsh style editing keys:		*tcsh-style*
:cnoremap <C-A> <Home>
:cnoremap <C-F> <Right>
:cnoremap <C-B> <Left>
:cnoremap <Esc>b <S-Left>
:cnoremap <Esc>f <S-Right>
(<> notation |<>|; type all this literally)

*cmdline_history*
The command lines that you enter are remembered in a history table.  You can
recall them with the up and down cursor keys.  There are actually two history
tables: one for ':' commands, one for search strings.  These are completely
separate.  The search strings history can be accessed only when entering a
search string, the ':' history only when entering a command line for the ":"
command.  Use the 'history' option to set the number of lines that are
remembered (default: 20).  Note that when you enter a command line that is
excactly the same as an older one, the old one is removed (to avoid repeated
commands moving older commands out of the history).  Only commands that are
typed are remembered.  Ones that come from mappings are not put in the history
(detail: the decision is made from the last key that was typed for the line,
normally <CR>).  All searches are put in the search history, including the ones
that come from commands like "*" and "#".  {Vi: no history}

There is an automatic completion of names on the command line; see 4.4.2,
|cmdline_completion|.

*c_CTRL-V*
CTRL-V		Insert next non-digit literally.  Up to three digits form the
decimal value of a single byte.  The non-digit and the three
digits are not considered for mapping.  This works the same
way as in Insert mode (see above, |i_CTRL-V|).
*c_CTRL-Q*
CTRL-Q		Same as CTRL-V.

*c_<Left>*
<Left>		cursor left
*c_<Right>*
<Right>		cursor right
*c_<S-Left>*
<S-Left>	cursor one word left
*c_<S-Right>*
<S-Right>	cursor one word right
CTRL-B or <Home>					*c_CTRL-B* *c_<Home>*
cursor to beginning of command line
CTRL-E or <End>						*c_CTRL-E* *c_<End>*
cursor to end of command line

*c_<LeftMouse>*
<LeftMouse>	cursor to position of mouse click.

CTRL-H							*c_<BS>* *c_CTRL-H*
<BS>		delete the character in front of the cursor (see |:fixdel| if
your <BS> key does not do what you want).
*c_<Del>*
<Del>		delete the character under the cursor (at end of line:
character before the cursor) (see |:fixdel| if your <Del>
key does not do what you want).
*c_CTRL-W*
CTRL-W		delete the word before the cursor
*c_CTRL-U*
CTRL-U		remove all characters

Note: if the command line becomes empty with one of the
delete commands, Command-line mode is quit.
*c_<Insert>*
<Insert>	Toggle between insert and overstrike.  {not in Vi}

{char1} <BS> {char2}	or				*c_digraph*
CTRL-K {char1} {char2}					*c_CTRL-K*
enter digraph (see 4.7, |digraphs|).  When {char1} is a special
key, the code for that key is inserted.  {not in Vi}

CTRL-R <0-9a-z"%:->					*c_CTRL-R*
Insert the contents of a numbered or named register.  Between
typing CTRL-R and the second character '"' will be displayed
to indicate that you are expected to enter the name of a
register.  The text is inserted as if you typed it, but
mappings and abbreviations are not used.  Special registers:
'"'	the unnamed register, containing the text of
the last delete or yank
'%'	the current file name
':'	the last command line
'-'	the last small (less than a line) delete
Note: The '.' register (last inserted text) is not available
here.  See |registers| about registers.  {not in Vi}

CTRL-J						*c_CTRL-J* *c_<NL>* *c_<CR>*
<CR> or <NL>	start entered command
*c_<Esc>*
<Esc>		When typed and 'x' not present in 'cpoptions', quit
Command-line mode without executing.  In macros or when 'x'
present in 'cpoptions', start entered command.
*c_CTRL-C*
CTRL-C		quit command line without executing

*c_<Up>*
<Up>		recall older command line from history, whose beginning
matches the current command line (see below).
*c_<Down>*
<Down>		recall more recent command line from history, whose beginning
matches the current command line (see below).

*c_<S-Up>* *c_<PageUp>*
<S-Up> or <PageUp>
recall older command line from history
*c_<S-Down>* *c_<PageDown>*
<S-Down> or <PageDown>
recall more recent command line from history

CTRL-D		command line completion (see 4.4.2, |cmdline_completion|)
'wildchar' option
command line completion (see 4.4.2, |cmdline_completion|)
CTRL-N		command line completion (see 4.4.2, |cmdline_completion|)
CTRL-P		command line completion (see 4.4.2, |cmdline_completion|)
CTRL-A		command line completion (see 4.4.2, |cmdline_completion|)
CTRL-L		command line completion (see 4.4.2, |cmdline_completion|)

*c_CTRL-_*
CTRL-_		switch between Hebrew and English keyboard mode, which is
private to the command line and not related to hkmap.
This is useful when Hebrew text entry is required in the
command line, searches, abbreviations, etc.  Applies only if
Vim is compiled with RIGHTLEFT.  See |vim_rlh.txt|.

The <Up> and <Down> keys take the current command line as a search string.
The beginning of the next/previous command lines are compared with this
string.  The first line that matches is the new command line.  When typing
these two keys repeatedly, the same string is used again.  For example, this
can be used to find the previous substitute command: Type ":s" and then <Up>.
The same could be done by typing <S-Up> a number of times until the desired
command line is shown.  (Note: the shifted arrow keys do not work on all
terminals)

4.4.2 Command line completion				*cmdline_completion*

When editing the command line, a few commands can be used to complete the
word before the cursor.  This is available for:

- Command names: at the start of the command line.  Works always.
- tags: only after the ":tag" command.
- file names: only after a command that accepts a file name or a setting for
an option that can be set to a file name.  This is called file name
completion.
- options: only after the ":set" command.

These are the commands that can be used:

*c_CTRL-D*
CTRL-D		List names that match the pattern in front of the cursor.
When showing file names, directories are highlighted (see
'highlight' option)
*c_CTRL-I* *c_wildchar* *c_<Tab>*
'wildchar' option
A match is done on the pattern in front of the cursor.  The
match (if there are several, the first match) is inserted
in place of the pattern.  (Note: does not work inside a
macro, because <Tab> or <Esc> are mostly used as 'wildchar',
and these have a special meaning in some macros.) When typed
again and there were multiple matches, the next
match is inserted.  After the last match, the first is used
again (wrap around).
*c_CTRL-N*
CTRL-N		After using 'wildchar' which got multiple matches, go to next
match.  Otherwise recall more recent command line from history.
<S-Tab>							*c_CTRL-P* *c_<S-Tab>*
CTRL-P		After using 'wildchar' which got multiple matches, go to
previous match.  Otherwise recall older command line from
history.  <S-Tab> only works with the GUI, on the Amiga and
with MS-DOS.
*c_CTRL-A*
CTRL-A		All names that match the pattern in front of the cursor are
inserted.
*c_CTRL-L*
CTRL-L		A match is done on the pattern in front of the cursor.  If
there is one match, it is inserted in place of the pattern.
If there are multiple matches the longest common part is
inserted in place of the pattern.

The 'wildchar' option defaults to <Tab> (CTRL-E when compiled with
COMPATIBLE; in a previous version <Esc> was used).  In the pattern standard
wildcards '*' and '?' are accepted.  '*' matches any string, '?' matches
exactly one character.

If you like tcsh's autolist completion, you can use this mapping:
:cnoremap X <C-L><C-D>
(Where X is the command key to use, <C-L> is CTRL-L and <C-D> is CTRL-L)
This will find the longest match and then list all matching files.

*suffixes*
For filename completion you can use the 'suffixes' option to set a priority
between files with almost the same name.  If there are multiple matches,
those files with an extension that is in the 'suffixes' option are ignored.
The default is ".bak,~,.o,.h,.info,.swp", which means that files ending in
".bak", "~", ".o", ".h", ".info" and ".swp" are sometimes ignored.  It is
impossible to ignore suffixes with two dots.  Examples:

pattern:	files:				match:
test*		test.c test.h test.o		test.c
test*		test.h test.o			test.h and test.o
test*		test.i test.h test.c		test.i and test.c

If there is more than one matching file (after ignoring the ones matching
the 'suffixes' option) the first file name is inserted.  You can see that
there is only one match when you type 'wildchar' twice and the completed
match stays the same.  You can get to the other matches by entering
'wildchar', CTRL-N or CTRL-P.  All files are included, also the ones with
extensions matching the 'suffixes' option.

The old value of an option can be obtained by hitting 'wildchar' just after
the '='.  For example, typing 'wildchar' after ":set dir=" will insert the
current value of 'dir'.  This overrules filename completion for the options
that take a file name.

If you would like using <S-Tab> for CTRL-P in an xterm, put this command in
xmodmap -e "keysym Tab = Tab Find"
And this in your .vimrc:
cmap <Esc>[1~ <C-P>		(<C-P> is CTRL-P)

4.4.3 Ex command lines					*cmdline_lines*

The Ex commands have a few specialties:

*:quote*
'"' at the start of a line causes the whole line to be ignored.  '"'
after a command causes the rest of the line to be ignored.  This can be used
:set ai		"set 'autoindent' option
It is not possible to add a comment to a shell command ":!cmd" or to the
":map" command and friends, because they see the '"' as part of their
argument.

*:bar*
'|' can be used to separate commands, so you can give multiple commands in one
line.  The commands ":global", "vglobal", ":!", ":r !", ":w !", ":help" and
":autocmd" see the '|' as their argument, and can therefore not be followed by
another command.  If you want '|' to be included in one of the other commands,
precede it with '\'.  Note that this is confusing (inherited from Vi).   With
":g" the '|' is included in the command, with ":s" it is not.

There is one exception: When the 'b' flag is present in 'cpoptions', with the
":map" and ":abbr" commands and friends CTRL-V needs to be used instead of
'\'.  You can also use "<Bar>" instead.  See also |map_bar|.

Examples:
:!ls | wc		view the output of two commands
:r !ls | wc		insert the same output in the text
:%g/foo/p|>		moves all matching lines one shiftwidth
:%s/foo/bar/|>		moves one line one shiftwidth
:map q 10^V|		map "q" to "10|"
:map q 10\| map \ l	map "q" to "10\" and map "\" to "l"
(when 'b' is present in 'cpoptions')

You can also use <NL> to separate commands in the same way as with '|'.  To
insert a <NL> use CTRL-V CTRL-J.  "^@" will be shown.  Using '|' is the
preferred method.  But for external commands a <NL> must be used, because a
'|' is included in the external command.  To avoid the special meaning of <NL>
it must be preceded with a backslash.  Example:
:r !date<NL>-join
This reads the current date into the file and joins it with the previous line.

Because of vi compatibility the following strange commands are supported:
:|			print current line (like ":p")
:3|			print line 3 (like ":3p")
:3			goto line 3

A colon is allowed between the range and the command name.  It is ignored
(this is vi compatible).  For example ":1,$:s/pat/string". When the character '%' or '#' is used where a filename is expected, they are expanded to the current and alternate filename (see the chapter "editing files" |:_%| |:_#|). Embedded spaces in filenames are allowed on the Amiga if one filename is expected as argument. Trailing spaces will be ignored, unless escaped with a backslash or CTRL-V. Note that the ":next" command uses spaces to separate file names. Escape the spaces to include them in a file name. Example: :next foo\ bar goes\ to school\ starts editing the three files "foo bar", "goes to" and "school ". When you want to use the special characters '"' or '|' in a command, or want to use '%' or '#' in a filename, precede them with a backslash. The backslash is not required in a range and in the ":substitute" command. *:_!* The '!' (bang) character after an Ex command makes the command behave in a different way. The '!' should be placed immediately after the command, without any blanks in between. If you insert blanks the '!' will be seen as an argument for the command, which has a different meaning. For example: :w! name write the current buffer to file "name", overwriting any existing file :w !name send the current buffer as standard input to command "name" 4.4.4 Ex command line ranges *cmdline_ranges* Some Ex commands accept a line range in front of them. This is noted as [range]. It consists of one or more line specifiers, separated with ',' or ';'. When separated with ';' the cursor position will be set to that line before interpreting the next line specifier. The default line specifier for most commands is the cursor position, but the commands ":write" and ":global" have the whole file (1,$) as default.  If more line specifiers are
given than required for the command, the first one(s) will be ignored.

Line numbers may be specified with:			*:range*
{number}	an absolute line number
.		the current line			  *:.*
$the last line in the file *:$*
%		equal to 1,$(the entire file) *:%* * equal to '<,'> (the Visual area) *:star* 't position of mark t (lower case) *:'* /{pattern}[/] the next line where {pattern} matches *:/* ?{pattern}[?] the previous line where {pattern} matches *:?* \/ the next line where the previously used search pattern matches \? the previous line where the previously used search pattern matches \& the next line where the previously used substitute pattern matches Each may be followed (several times) by '+' or '-' and an optional number. This number is added or subtracted from the preceding line number. If the number is omitted, 1 is used. The "/" and "?" may be preceded with another address. The search starts from there. The "/" and "?" after {pattern} are required to separate the pattern from anything that follows. The {number} must be between 0 and the number of lines in the file. A 0 is interpreted as a 1, except with the commands tag, pop and read. Examples: .+3 three lines below the cursor /that/+1 the line below the next line containing "that" .,$		from current line until end of file
0;/that		the first line containing "that"

Some commands allow for a count after the command.  This count is used as the
number of lines to be used, starting with the line given in the last line
specifier (the default is the cursor line).  The commands that accept a count
are the ones that use a range but do not have a file name argument (because
a file name can also be a number).

Examples:
:s/x/X/g 5	substitute 'x' by 'X' in the current line and four
following lines
:23d 4		delete lines 23, 24, 25 and 26

A range should have the lower line number first.  If this is not the case, Vim
will ask you if it should swap the line numbers.  This is not done within the
global command ":g".

*N:*
When giving a count before entering ":", this is translated into:
:.,.+(count - 1)
In words: The 'count' lines at and after the cursor.  Example: To delete
three lines:
3:d<CR>		is translated into: .,.+2d<CR>

*v_:*
{Visual}:	Starts a command line with the Visual selected lines as a
range.  The code ":'<,'>" is used for this range, which makes
it possible to select a similar line from the command line
history for repeating a command on different Visually selected
lines.

4.4.5 Ex special characters				*cmdline_special*

In Ex commands, at places where a file name can be used, the following
characters have a special meaning.  To avoid the special meaning of '%' and
'#' insert a backslash before it.
%	   is replaced with the current filename		*:_%*
#	   is replaced with the alternate filename		*:_#*
#n	   (where n is a number) is replaced with the filename of
buffer n.  "#0" is the same as "#"

Note: the next four are typed literally, these are not special keys!
*:<cword>* *:<cWORD>* *:<cfile>* *:<afile>*
<cword>    is replaced with the word under the cursor
<cWORD>    is replaced with the WORD under the cursor (see |WORD|)
<cfile>    is replaced with the path name under the cursor
<afile>    when executing autocommands, is replaced with the file name
for a file read or write

*:_%:* *::p* *::h* *::t* *::r* *::e*
After "%", "#", "#n", "<cfile>" or "<afile>" modifiers can be given (in this
order):
:p	   Make file name a full path.  Must be the first modifier.
:h	   Head of the file name (the last component and any
separators removed).  Cannot be used with :e, :r or :t.
Can be repeated to remove several components at the end.
When the file name is an absolute path (starts with "/" for
Unix; "x:\" for MS-DOS, WIN32, OS/2; "drive:" for Amiga),
that part is not removed.  When there is no head (path is
relative to current directory) the result is empty.
:t	   Tail of the file name (last component of the name).  Must
precede any :r or :e.
:r	   Root of the file name (the last extension removed).  When
there is only an extension (file name that starts with
'.', e.g., ".vimrc"), it is not removed.  Can be repeated to
remove several extensions (last one first).
:e	   Extension of the file name.  Only makes sense when used
alone.  When there is no extension the result is empty.
When there is only an extension (file name that starts with
'.'), the result is empty.  Can be repeated to include more
extensions.  If there are not enough extensions (but at
least one) as much as possible are included.

Examples, when the file name is "src/version.c":
:p	   /home/mool/vim/src/version.c
:h			  src
:p:h	   /home/mool/vim/src
:p:h:h	   /home/mool/vim
:t			      version.c
:p:t			      version.c
:r			  src/version
:p:r	   /home/mool/vim/src/version
:t:r			      version
:e				      c

Examples, when the file name is "src/version.c.gz":
:p	   /home/mool/vim/src/version.c.gz
:e		                        gz
:e:e                                  c.gz
:e:e:e                                c.gz
:e:e:r                                c
:r                        src/version.c
:r:e                                  c
:r:r                      src/version
:r:r:r                    src/version

*:_%<*
If a "<" is appended to "%", "#", "#n" or "CTRL-V p" the extension of the file
name is removed (everything after and including the last '.' in the file
name).  This is included for backwards compatibility with version 3.0, the
":r" form is preferred.  Examples:

%		current file name
%<		current file name without extension
#		alternate file name for current window
#<		idem, without extension
#31		alternate file number 31
#31<		idem, without extension
<cword>		word under the cursor
<cWORD>		WORD under the cursor (see |WORD|)
<cfile>		path name under the cursor
<cfile><	idem, without extension

Note: Where a file name is expected wildcards expansion is done.  On Unix the
shell is used for this.  Backticks also work, like in ":n echo *.c".
But expansion is only done if there are any wildcards before expanding the
'%', '#', etc..  This avoids expanding wildcards inside a file name.
Examples: (alternate filename is "?readme?")
command		expands to
:e #		:e ?readme?
:e ls #	:e {files matching "?readme?"}
:e #.*		:e {files matching "?readme?.*"}

4.5 The window contents					*window_contents*

In command and Insert/Replace mode the screen window will show the current
contents of the buffer: What You See Is What You Get.  There are two
exceptions:
- When the 'cpoptions' option contains '$', and the change is within one line, the text is not directly deleted, but a '$' is put at the last deleted
character.
- When inserting text in one window, other windows on the same text are not
updated until the insert is finished.
{Vi: The screen is not always updated on slow terminals}

Lines longer than the window width will wrap, unless the 'wrap' option is off
(see below).  The 'linebreak' option can be set to wrap at a blank character.

The bottom lines in the window may start with one of these two characters:

'@'	The next line is too long to fit in the window.
'~'	Below the last line in the buffer.

If the bottom line is completely filled with '@', the line that is at the
top of the window is too long to fit in the window.  If the cursor is on this
line you can't see what you are doing, because this part of the line is not
shown.  However, the part of the line before the '@'s can be edited normally.
{Vi: gives an "internal error" on lines that do not fit in the window}

The 'showbreak' option contains the string to put in front of wrapped lines.

*wrap_off*
If the 'wrap' option is off, long lines will not wrap.  Only the part that
fits on the screen is shown.  If the cursor is moved to a part of the line
that is not shown, the screen is scrolled horizontally.  The advantage of
this method is that columns are shown as they are and lines that cannot fit
on the screen can be edited.  The disadvantage is that you cannot see all the
characters of a line at once.  The 'sidescroll' option can be set to the
minimal number of columns to scroll.  {Vi: has no 'wrap' option}

All normal ASCII characters are displayed directly on the screen.  The <Tab>
is replaced with the number of spaces that it represents.  Other non-printing
characters are replaced with "^{char}", where {char} is the non-printing
character with 64 added.  Thus character 7 (bell) will be shown as "^G".
Characters between 127 and 160 are replaced with "~{char}", where {char} is
the character with 64 subtracted.  These characters occupy more than one
position on the screen.  The cursor can only be positioned on the first one.

If you set the 'number' option, all lines will be preceded with their
number.  Tip: If you don't like wrapping lines to mix with the line numbers,
set the 'showbreak' option to eight spaces:
":set showbreak=\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ "

If you set the 'list' option, <Tab> characters will not be shown as several
spaces, but as "^I".  A '$' will be placed at the end of the line, so you can find trailing blanks. In Command-line mode only the command line itself is shown correctly. The display of the buffer contents is updated as soon as you go back to Command mode. Some commands hand over the window to external commands (e.g., ":shell" and "="). After these commands are finished the window may be clobbered with output from the external command, so it needs to be redrawn. This is also the case if something is displayed on the status line that is longer than the width of the window. If you are expected to have a look at the screen before it is redrawn, you get this message: Press RETURN or enter command to continue After you type a key the screen will be redrawn and Vim continues. If you type <CR>, <SP> or <NL> nothing else happens. If you type any other key, it will be interpreted as (the start of) a new command. {Vi: only ":" commands are interpreted} The last line of the window is used for status and other messages. The status messages will only be used if an option is on: status message option default Unix default current mode 'showmode' on on command characters 'showcmd' on off cursor position 'ruler' off off The current mode is "-- INSERT --" or "-- REPLACE --", see |'showmode'|. The command characters are those that you typed but were not used yet. {Vi: does not show the characters you typed or the cursor position} If you have a slow terminal you can switch off the status messages to speed up editing: :set nosc noru nosm If there is an error, an error message will be shown for at least one second (in reverse video). {Vi: error messages may be overwritten with other messages before you have a chance to read them} Some commands show how many lines were affected. Above which threshold this happens can be controlled with the 'report' option (default 2). On the Amiga Vim will run in a CLI window. The name Vim and the full name of the current filename will be shown in the title bar. When the window is resized, Vim will automatically redraw the window. You may make the window as small as you like, but if it gets too small not a single line will fit in it. Make it at least 40 characters wide to be able to read most messages on the last line. On most Unix systems window resize works ok. {Vi: not ok} 4.6 Abbreviations *abbreviations* Abbreviations are used in insert mode, Replace mode and Command-line mode. If you enter a word that is an abbreviation, it is replaced with the word it stands for. This can be used to save typing for often used long words. There are three types of abbreviations: full-id The "full-id" type consists entirely of keyword characters (letters and characters from 'iskeyword' option). This is the most common abbreviation. Examples: "foo", "g3", "-1" end-id The "end-id" type ends in a keyword character, but all the other characters are not keyword characters. Examples: "#i", "..f", "$/7"

non-id	  The "non-id" type ends in a non-keyword character, the other
characters may be of any type, excluding space and Tab.  {this type
is not supported by Vi}

Examples: "def#", "4/7$" Examples of strings that cannot be abbreviations: "a.b", "#def", "a b", "_$r"

An abbreviation is only recognized when you type a non-keyword character.
This can also be the <Esc> that ends insert mode or the <CR> that ends a
command.  The characters before the cursor must match the abbreviation.  Each
type has an additional rule:

full-id	  In front of the match is a non-keyword character, or this is where
the line or insertion starts.  Exception: When the abbreviation is
only one character, it is not recognized if there is a non-keyword
character in front of it, other than a space or a <Tab>.

end-id	  In front of the match is a keyword character, or a space or a <Tab>,
or this is where the line or insertion starts.

non-id	  In front of the match is a space, <Tab> or the start of the line or
the insertion.

Examples: (<CURSOR> is where you type a non-keyword character)
":ab foo four old otters" (Note that spaces in the <rhs> are allowed
and included in the replacement string.)
" foo<CURSOR>"	  is expanded to " four old otters"
" foobar<CURSOR>" is not expanded
"barfoo<CURSOR>"  is not expanded

":ab #i #include"
"#i<CURSOR>"	  is expanded to "#include"
">#i<CURSOR>"	  is not expanded

":ab ;; <endofline>"
"test;;"	  is not expanded
"test ;;"	  is expanded to "test <endofline>"

To avoid the abbreviation in insert mode: Type part of the abbreviation, exit
insert mode with <Esc>, re-enter insert mode with "a" and type the rest.  Or
type CTRL-V before the character after the abbreviation.
To avoid the abbreviation in Command-line mode: Type CTRL-V twice somewhere in
the abbreviation to avoid it to be replaced.  A CTRL-V in front of a normal
character is mostly ignored otherwise.

There are no default abbreviations.

Abbreviations are never recursive.  You can use ":ab f f-o-o" without any
problem.  But abbreviations can be mapped.  {some versions of Vi support
recursive abbreviations, for no apparent reason}

Abbreviations are disabled if the 'paste' option is on.

*:ab* *:abbreviate*
:ab[breviate]		list all abbreviations.  The character in the first
column indicates the mode where the abbreviation is
used: 'i' for insert mode, 'c' for Command-line
mode, '!' for both.

:ab[breviate] <lhs>	list the abbreviations that start with <lhs>

:ab[breviate] <lhs> <rhs>
add abbreviation for <lhs> to <rhs>.  If <lhs> already
existed it is replaced with the new <rhs>.  <rhs> may
contain spaces.

*:una* *:unabbreviate*
:una[bbreviate] <lhs>	remove abbreviation for <lhs> from the list

*:norea* *:noreabbrev*
:norea[bbrev] [lhs] [rhs]
same as ":ab", but no remapping for this <rhs> {not
in Vi}

*:ca* *:cabbrev*
:ca[bbrev] [lhs] [rhs]	same as ":ab", but for Command-line mode only.  {not
in Vi}

*:cuna* *:cunabbrev*
:cuna[bbrev] <lhs>	same as ":una", but for Command-line mode only.  {not
in Vi}

*:cnorea* *:cnoreabbrev*
:cnorea[bbrev] [lhs] [rhs]
same as ":ab", but for Command-line mode only and no
remapping for this <rhs> {not in Vi}

*:ia* *:iabbrev*
:ia[bbrev] [lhs] [rhs]	same as ":ab", but for Insert mode only.  {not in Vi}

*:iuna* *:iunabbrev*
:iuna[bbrev] <lhs>	same as ":una", but for insert mode only.  {not in
Vi}

*:inorea* *:inoreabbrev*
:inorea[bbrev] [lhs] [rhs]
same as ":ab", but for Insert mode only and no
remapping for this <rhs> {not in Vi}

*:abc* *:abclear*
:abc[lear]		Remove all abbreviations.  {not in Vi}

*:iabc* *:iabclear*
:iabc[lear]		Remove all abbreviations for Insert mode.  {not in Vi}

*:cabc* *:cabclear*
:cabc[lear]		Remove all abbreviations for Command-line mode.  {not
in Vi}

*using_CTRL-V*
It is possible to use special characters in the rhs of an abbreviation.
CTRL-V has to be used to avoid the special meaning of most non printable
characters.  How many CTRL-Vs need to be typed depends on how you enter the
abbreviation.  This also applies to mappings.  Let's use an example here.

Suppose you want to abbreviate "esc" to enter an <Esc> character.  When you
type the ":ab" command in Vim, you have to enter this: (here ^V is a CTRL-V
and ^[ is <Esc>)

You type:   ab esc ^V^V^V^V^V^[

All keyboard input is subjected to ^V quote interpretation, so
the first, third, and fifth ^V  characters simply allow the second,
and fourth ^Vs, and the ^[, to be entered into the command line.

You see:    ab esc ^V^V^[

The command line contains two actual ^Vs before the ^[.  This is
how it should appear in your .exrc file, if you choose to go that
route.  The first ^V is there to quote the second ^V; the :ab
command uses ^V as its own quote character, so you can include quoted
whitespace or the | character in the abbreviation.   The :ab command
doesn't do anything special with the ^[ character, so it doesn't need
to be quoted.  (Although quoting isn't harmful; that's why typing 7
[but not 8!] ^Vs works.)

Stored as:  esc     ^V^[

After parsing, the abbreviation's short form ("esc") and long form
(the two characters "^V^[") are stored in the abbreviation table.
If you give the :ab command with no arguments, this is how the
abbreviation will be displayed.

Later, when the abbreviation is expanded because the user typed in
the word "esc", the long form is subjected to the same type of
^V interpretation as keyboard input.  So the ^V protects the ^[
character from being interpreted as the "exit input-mode" character.
Instead, the ^[ is inserted into the text.

Expands to: ^[

[example given by Steve Kirkendall]

4.7 Digraphs						*digraphs*

*:dig* *:digraphs*
:dig[raphs]		show currently defined digraphs.  {not in Vi}

:dig[raphs] {char1}{char2} {number} ...
Add digraph {char1}{char2} to the list.  {number} is
the decimal representation of the character.

Digraphs are used to enter characters that normally cannot be entered by
an ordinary keyboard.  These are mostly accented characters which have the
eighth bit set.  The digraphs are easier to remember than the decimal number
that can be entered with CTRL-V (see above).

Vim must have been compiled with DIGRAPHS defined.  If this wasn't done, the
":digraph" command will display an error message.  You can also check this
with the ":version" command.  If it shows "+digraphs" then it's included,
"-digraphs" means it's not included.

There are two methods to enter digraphs:			*i_digraph*
CTRL-K {char1} {char2}		or
{char1} <BS> {char2}
The first is always available.  The second only when the 'digraph' option is
set.

If a digraph with {char1}{char2} does not exist, a digraph {char2}{char1} is
searched for.  This will help when you don't remember which character comes
first.

Note that when you enter CTRL-K {char1}, where {char1} is a special key, the
code for that special key is entered.  This is not a digraph.

Once you have entered the digraph the character is treated like a normal
character, taking up only one character in the file and on the screen.
Example:
'|' <BS> '|'	will enter the double '|' character (166)
'a' <BS> '^'	will enter an 'a' with a hat (226)
CTRL-K '-' '-'	will enter a minus sign (173)

The default digraphs are listed in the file "vim_digr.txt" |digraph_table|.
There are two sets: One that is used for MS-DOS and one for the international
standard character set that is mostly used on Unix systems and the Amiga.
With the wrong character set they will look illogical.

For CTRL-K there is one general digraph: CTRL-K <Space> {char} will enter
{char} with the highest bit set.  This can be used to enter meta-characters.

The <Esc> character cannot be part of a digraph.  When hitting <Esc> the
entering of the digraph is aborted and Insert mode or command-line mode is
ended, just like hitting an <Esc>.

If you accidently typed an 'a' that should be an 'e', you will type 'a' <BS>
'e'.  But that is a digraph, so you will not get what you want.  To correct
this, you will have to type <BS> e again.  To avoid this don't set the
'digraph' option and use CTRL-K to enter digraphs.

You may have problems using Vim with characters which have an ascii value >
128.  For example: You insert ue (u-umlaut) and the editor echoes \334 in
Insert mode.  After leaving the Insert mode everything is fine.  Also fmt
removes all characters with ascii > 128 from the text being formated.
On some Unix systems this means you have to define the environment-variable
LC_CTYPE.  If you are using csh then put in your .cshrc following line:
setenv LC_CTYPE=iso_8859_1

4.8 Using the mouse					*mouse_using*

This section is about using the mouse on a terminal or a terminal window.  How
to use the mouse in a GUI window is explained in |gui_mouse|.  Don't forget to
do ":set mouse=a", otherwise Vim won't recognize the mouse in all modes (See
'mouse').

Currently the mouse is supported for Unix in an xterm window and for MS-DOS.
Mouse clicks can be used to position the cursor, select the Visual area and
paste.  There are no menus, use the GUI version for that.

The characters in the 'mouse' option tell in which situations the mouse will
be used by Vim:
n	Normal mode
v	Visual mode
i	Insert mode
c	Command-line mode
h	all previous modes when in a help file
a	all previous modes
r	for "Hit return ..." question

The default for 'mouse' is empty, the mouse is not used.  Normally you would do
:set mouse=a
to start using the mouse (this is equivalent to setting 'mouse' to "nvich").
If you only want to use the mouse in a few modes or also want to use it for
the two questions you will have to concatenate the letters for those modes.
For example:
:set mouse=nv
Will make the mouse work in Normal mode and Visual mode.
:set mouse=h
Will make the mouse work in help files only (so you can use "g<LeftMouse>" to

In an xterm, with the currently active mode included in the 'mouse' option,
normal mouse clicks are used by Vim, mouse clicks with the shift or ctrl key
pressed go the the xterm.  With the currently active mode not included in
'mouse' all mouse clicks go to the xterm.

Here is how you copy and paste a piece of text:

Copy/paste with the mouse and Visual mode ('mouse' option must be set, see
above):
1. Press left mouse button on first letter of text, move mouse pointer to last
letter of the text and release the button.  This will start Visual mode and
highlight the selected area.
2. Press "y" to yank the Visual text in the unnamed register.
3. Click the left mouse button at the insert position.
4. Click the middle mouse button.

Shortcut: If the insert position is on the screen at the same time as the
Visual text, you can do 2, 3 and 4 all in one: Click the middle mouse button
at the insert position.

*xterm_copy_paste*
Copy/paste in xterm with (current mode NOT included in 'mouse'):
1. Press left mouse button on first letter of text, move mouse pointer to last
letter of the text and release the button.
2. Use normal Vim commands to put the cursor at the insert position.
3. Press "a" to start Insert mode.
4. Click the middle mouse button.
5. Press ESC to end Insert mode.
(The same can be done with anything in 'mouse' if you keep the shift key
pressed while using the mouse)

Note: if you loose the 8th bit when pasting (special characters are translated
into other characters), you may have to do "stty cs8 -istrip" in your shell
before starting Vim.

Thus in an xterm the shift and ctrl keys cannot be used with the mouse.  To
make it possible to do the mouse commands that require the ctrl modifier, the
"g" key can be typed before using the mouse:
"g<LeftMouse>"	is "<C-LeftMouse>	(jump to tag under mouse click)
"g<RightMouse>" is "<C-RightMouse>	("CTRL-T")

A short overview of what the mouse buttons do:

Normal Mode:
event	      position	   Visual	  change  action
cursor			  window
<LeftMouse>     yes	     end	    yes
<C-LeftMouse>   yes	     end	    yes	   "CTRL-]" (2)
<S-LeftMouse>   yes	  no change	    yes	   "*" (2)    *<S-LeftMouse>*
<LeftDrag>      yes	start or extend (1) no		      *<LeftDrag>*
<LeftRelease>   yes	start or extend (1) no
<MiddleMouse>   yes	  if not active     no	   put
<MiddleMouse>   yes	  if active	    no	   yank and put
<RightMouse>    yes	start or extend     yes
<S-RightMouse>  yes	   no change	    yes	   "#" (2)    *<S-RightMouse>*
<C-RightMouse>  no     	   no change	    no	   "CTRL-T"
<RightDrag>     yes	    extend	    no		      *<RightDrag>*
<RightRelease>  yes	    extend	    no		      *<RightRelease>*

Insert or Replace Mode:
event	      position	   Visual	  change  action
cursor			  window
<LeftMouse>     yes     (cannot be active)  yes
<C-LeftMouse>   yes     (cannot be active)  yes	   "CTRL-O^]" (2)
<S-LeftMouse>   yes     (cannot be active)  yes	   "CTRL-O*" (2)
<LeftDrag>      yes     start or extend (1) no	   like CTRL-O (1)
<LeftRelease>   yes     start or extend (1) no	   like CTRL-O (1)
<MiddleMouse>   no      (cannot be active)  no	   put register
<RightMouse>    yes     start or extend	    yes	   like CTRL-O
<S-RightMouse>  yes     (cannot be active)  yes	   "CTRL-O#" (2)
<C-RightMouse>  no     	(cannot be active)  no	   "CTRL-O CTRL-T"

(1) only if mouse pointer moved since press
(2) only if click is in same buffer

Clicking the left mouse button causes the cursor to be positioned.  If the
click is in another window that window is made the active window.  When
editing the command line the cursor can only be positioned on the
command line.  When in Insert mode Vim remains in Insert mode.  If 'scrolloff'
is set, and the cursor is positioned within 'scrolloff' lines from the window
border, the text is scrolled.

A Visual area can be selected by pressing the left mouse button on the first
character, moving the mouse to the last character, then releasing the mouse
button.  You will not always see the Visual selection until you release the
button, only in some versions (GUI, MS-DOS, WIN32) will the dragging be shown
immediately.  Note that you can make the text scroll by moving the mouse at
least one character in the first/last line in the window when 'scrolloff' is
non-zero.

In Normal and Visual mode clicking the right mouse button causes the Visual
area to be extended.  When clicking in a window which is editing another
buffer, the Visual mode is stopped.

Double, triple and quadruple clicks are supported when the GUI is active,
for MS-DOS and Win32, and for an xterm (if the gettimeofday() function is
available).  Double clicking may be done to make the selection word-wise,
triple clicking makes it line-wise, and quadruple clicking makes it
rectangular block-wise.  For MS-DOS and xterm the time for double clicking can
be set with the 'mousetime' option.  For the other systems this time is
defined outside of Vim.

In Insert mode, when a Visual area is selected, Vim goes into Normal mode
temporarily.  When Visual mode ends, it returns to Insert mode.  This is like
using CTRL-O in Insert mode.

*drag_status_line*
When working with several windows, the size of the windows can be changed by
dragging the status line with the mouse.  Point the mouse at a status line,
press the left button, move the mouse to the new position of the status line,
release the button.  Just clicking the mouse in a status line makes that window
the current window, without moving the cursor.  If by selecting a window it
will change position or size, the dragging of the status line will look
confusing, but it will work (just try it).

Mouse clicks can be mapped.  The codes for mouse clicks are:
code	    mouse button	      normal action
<LeftMouse>	 left pressed		    set cursor position
<LeftDrag>	 left moved while pressed   extend Visual area
<LeftRelease>	 left released		    set Visual area end
<MiddleMouse>	 middle pressed		    paste text at cursor position
<MiddleDrag>	 middle moved while pressed -
<MiddleRelease> middle released	    -
<RightMouse>	 right pressed		    extend Visual area
<RightDrag>	 right moved while pressed  extend Visual area
<RightRelease>  right released		    set Visual area end

Examples:
:noremap <MiddleMouse> <LeftMouse><MiddleMouse>
Paste at the position of the middle mouse button click (otherwise the paste
would be done at the cursor position).

:noremap <LeftRelease> <LeftRelease>y
Immediately yank the Visually highlighted text.

Note the use of ":noremap" instead of "map" to avoid a recursive mapping.

*mouse_swap_buttons*
To swap the meaning of the left and right mouse buttons:
:noremap	<LeftMouse>	<RightMouse>
:noremap	<LeftDrag>	<RightDrag>
:noremap	<LeftRelease>	<RightRelease>
:noremap	<RightMouse>	<LeftMouse>
:noremap	<RightDrag>	<LeftDrag>
:noremap	<RightRelease>	<LeftRelease>
:noremap	g<LeftMouse>	<C-RightMouse>
:noremap	g<RightMouse>	<C-LeftMouse>
:noremap!	<LeftMouse>	<RightMouse>
:noremap!	<LeftDrag>	<RightDrag>
:noremap!	<LeftRelease>	<RightRelease>
:noremap!	<RightMouse>	<LeftMouse>
:noremap!	<RightDrag>	<LeftDrag>
:noremap!	<RightRelease>	<LeftRelease>

*help* *<Help>* *:h* *:help* *<F1>* *i_<F1>* *i_<Help>*
<Help>		or
:h[elp]			Split the window and display the help file in
read-only mode.  If there is a help window open
already, use that one.  {not in Vi}

{subject}.  {subject} can be a regular expression.
:help z.	jump to help for any "z" command
:help z\.	jump to the help for "z."
If there is no full match for the pattern, or there
are several matches, the "best" match will be used.
A match is considered to be better when:
- if no match with same case is found, a match with
ignoring case will be used
- the match is after a non-alphanumereic character
- it is at near the beginning of the tag
- more alphanumeric characters match
- the length of the matched is smaller
Note that the longer the {subject} you give, the less
matches will be found.  You can get an idea how this
all works by using commandline completion (type CTRL-D
after ":help subject".  {not in Vi}

The help file name can be set with the 'helpfile' option.  The initial height
of the help window can be set with the 'helpheight' option (default 20).
Jump to specific subjects by using tags.  This can be done in two ways:
- Use the "CTRL-]" command while standing on the name of a command or option.
This only works when the tag is a keyword.  "<C-Leftmouse>" and
"g<LeftMouse>" work just like "CTRL-]".
- use the ":ta {subject}" command.  This works with all characters.

Use "CTRL-T" to jump back.
Use ":q" to close the help window.

*help_xterm_window*
If you want to have the help in another xterm window, you could use this
command:
:!xterm -e vim +help &

*doc_files*
All the help files must be in the same directory.  The files are:
vim_help.txt	overview and quick reference	      |vim_help.txt|
vim_idx.txt	alphabetical index of all commands    |vim_idx.txt|
vim_ref.txt	reference manual (this file)	      |vim_ref.txt|
vim_win.txt	reference manual for windows commands |vim_win.txt|
vim_diff.txt	main differences between Vim and Vi   |vim_diff.txt|
vim_digr.txt	list of available digraphs	      |vim_digr.txt|
vim_tips.txt	tips on using Vim		      |vim_tips.txt|
vim_gui.txt	about the Graphical User Interface    |vim_gui.txt|
vim_40.txt	about version 4.0		      |vim_40.txt|
vim_rlh.txt	about the 'rightleft' option	      |vim_rlh.txt|

vim_unix.txt	Unix specific remarks		      |vim_unix.txt|
vim_ami.txt	Amiga specific remarks		      |vim_ami.txt|
vim_dos.txt	MS-DOS specific remarks		      |vim_dos.txt|
vim_w32.txt	Windows-NT/95 specific remarks	      |vim_w32.txt|
vim_os2.txt	OS/2 specific remarks		      |vim_os2.txt|
vim_arch.txt	Archimedes specific remarks	      |vim_arch.txt|
vim_mac.txt	Macintosh specific remarks	      |vim_mac.txt|
vim_mint.txt    Atari MiNT specific remarks           |vim_mint.txt|

vim_tags	tags file for documentation

5. Editing files					*edit_files*
================

5.1 Introduction					*edit_intro*

Editing a file with Vim means:

1. reading the file into the internal buffer
2. changing the buffer with editor commands
3. writing the buffer into a file

As long as you don't write the buffer, the original file remains unchanged.
If you start editing a file (read a file into the buffer), the file name is
remembered as the "current filename".

If there already was a current filename, then that one becomes the alternate
file name.  All filenames are remembered in the file list.  When you enter a
filename, for editing (e.g., with ":e filename") or writing (e.g., with (:w
filename"), the filename is added to the list.  You can use this list to
remember which files you edited and to quickly switch from one file to
another with the CTRL-^ command (e.g., to copy text).  First type the number
of the file and then hit CTRL-^.  {Vi: only one alternate filename}

CTRL-G		or				*CTRL-G* *:f* *:file*
:f[ile]			Prints the current filename (as typed), the
cursor position (unless the 'ruler' option is set),
and the file status (readonly, modified).  See the
'shortmess' option about how tho make this message
shorter.  {Vi does not include column number}

{count}CTRL-G		Like CTRL-G, but prints the current filename with full
path.  If the count is higher than 1 the current
buffer number is also given.  {not in Vi}

*g_CTRL-G*
g CTRL-G		Prints the current position of the cursor in three
ways: Column, Line and Character.  If there are
characters in the line that take more than one
position on the screen (<Tab> or special character),
both the "real" column and the screen column are
shown, separated with a dash.  See also 'ruler'
option.  {not in Vi}

*:file_f*
:f[ile] {name}		Sets the current filename to {name}.

:buffers
:files
:ls			List all the currently known file names.  See
'vim_win.txt' |:files| |:buffers| |:ls|.  {not in
Vi}

Vim will remember the full path name of a file name that you enter.  In most
cases when the file name is displayed only the name you typed is shown, but
the full path name is being used if you used the ":cd" command |:cd|.

*home_replace*
If the environment variable 'HOME' is set, and the file name starts with that
string, it is often displayed with HOME replaced with "~".  This was done to
keep file names short.  When reading or writing files the full name is still
used, the "~" is only used when displaying file names.  When replacing the
file name would result in just "~", "~/" is used instead (to avoid confusion
with 'backupext' set to "~").

When writing the buffer, the default is to use the current filename.  Thus
when you give the "ZZ" or ":wq" command, the original file will be
overwritten.  If you do not want this, the buffer can be written into another
file by giving a filename argument to the ":write" command.  For example:

vim testfile
[change the buffer with editor commands]
:w newfile
:q

This will create a file "newfile", that is a modified copy of "testfile".
The file "testfile" will remain unchanged.  Anyway, if the 'backup' option is
set, Vim renames or copies the original file before it will be overwritten.
You can use this file if you discover that you need the original file.  See
also the 'patchmode' option.  The name of the backup file is normally the same
as the original file with 'backupext' appended.  The default "~" is a bit
strange to avoid accidently overwriting existing files.  If you prefer ".bak"
change the 'backupext' option.  Extra dots are replaced with '_' on MS-DOS
machines, when Vim has detected that an MS-DOS-like filesystem is being used
(e.g., messydos or crossdos) or when the 'shortname' option is on.  The
backup file can be placed in another directory by setting 'backupdir'.

*auto_shortname*
Technical: On the Amiga you can use 30 characters for a file name.  But on an
MS-DOS-compatible filesystem only 8 plus 3 characters are
available.  Vim tries to detect the type of filesystem when it is
creating the .swp file.  If an MS-DOS-like filesystem is suspected,
a flag is set that has the same effect as setting the 'shortname'
option.  This flag will be reset as soon as you start editing a
new file.  The flag will be used when making the filename for the
".swp" and ".~" files for the current file.  But when you are
editing a file in a normal filesystem and write to an MS-DOS-like
filesystem the flag will not have been set.  In that case the
creation of the ".~" file may fail and you will get an error
message.  Use the 'shortname' option in this case.

When you started editing without giving a file name, "No File" is displayed in
messages.  If the ":write" command is used with a file name argument, the file
name for the current file is set to that file name.  This only happens when
the 'F' flag is included in 'cpoptions' (by default it is included).  This is
useful when entering text in an empty buffer and then writing it to a file.
If 'cpoptions' contains the 'f' flag (by default it is NOT included) the file
name is set for the ":read file" command.  This is useful when starting Vim
without an argument and then doing ":read file" to start editing a file.
Because the file name was set without really starting to edit that file, you
are protected from overwriting that file.  This is done by setting the
"notedited" flag.  You can see if this flag is set with the CTRL-G or ":file"
command.  It will include "[Not edited]" when the "notedited" flag is set.
When writing the buffer to the current file name (with ":w!"), the "notedited"
flag is reset.

Vim remembers whether you have changed the buffer.  You are protected from
losing the changes you made.  If you try to quit without writing, or want to
start editing another file, this will be refused.  In order to overrule this
protection add a '!' to the command.  The changes will then be lost.  For
example: ":q" will not work if the buffer was changed, but ":q!" will.  To see
whether the buffer was changed use the "CTRL-G" command.  The message includes
the string "[Modified]" if the buffer has been changed.

5.2 Editing a file					*edit_a_file*

*:e* *:edit*
:e[dit] [+cmd]		Edit the current file, unless changes have been made.

*:edit!*
:e[dit]! [+cmd]		Edit the current file always.  Discard any changes to
the buffer.

*:edit_f*
:e[dit] [+cmd] {file}	Edit {file}, unless changes have been made.

*:edit!_f*
:e[dit]! [+cmd] {file}	Edit {file} always.  Discard any changes to the
buffer.

:e[dit] #[count]	Edit the [count]th alternate filename (as shown by
:files).  This command does the same as [count] CTRL-^.

*:ex*
:ex [+cmd] [file]	Same as :edit.  {Vi: go from visual to Ex mode}

*:vi* *:visual*
:vi[sual] [+cmd] [file]	Same as :edit.  {Vi: go from Ex to visual mode}

*:vie* *:view*
:vie[w] [+cmd] file	Same as :edit, but set 'readonly' option for this
buffer.  {not in Vi}

*CTRL-^*
[count]CTRL-^		Edit [count]th alternate file (equivalent to ":e
#[count]").  Without count this gets you to the
previously edited file.  This is a quick way to
toggle between two (or more) files.  If the
'autowrite' option is on and the buffer was
changed, write it.

]f							*]f*
[f							*[f* *gf*
gf			Edit the file whose name is under or after the
cursor.  Mnemonic: "goto file".   Uses the 'isfname'
option to find out which characters are supposed to be
in a file name.  Uses the 'path' variable as a list of
directory names to look for the file.  Also looks for
the file relative to the current file.  This command
fails if the current file cannot be abandoned.  If the
name is a hypertext link, that looks like
"type://machine/path", only "/path" is used.  For Unix
the '~' character is expanded, like in "~user/file".
{not in Vi}

*:cd*
:cd			On non-Unix systems: Print the current directory
name.  On Unix systems: Change the current directory
to the home directory.

:cd {path}		Change the current directory to {path}.  Does not
change the meaning of an already entered file name,
because its full path name is remembered.  On MS-DOS
this also changes the active drive.

*:chd* *:chdir*
:chd[ir] [path]		Same as :cd.

*:pw* *:pwd*
:pw[d]			Print the current directory name.  {Vi: no pwd}

These commands are used to start editing a single file.  This means that the
file is read into the buffer and the current filename is set.  You may use the
":cd" command to get to another directory, so you will not have to type that
directory name in front of the filenames.  One warning: After using ":cd" the
full path name will be used for reading and writing files.  On some networked
file systems this may cause problems.  The result of using the full path name
is that the file names currently in use will remain referring to the same
file.  Example: If you have a file a:test and a directory a:vim the commands
":e test" ":cd vim" ":w" will overwrite the file a:test and not write
a:vim/test.  But if you do ":w test" the file a:vim/test will be written,
because you gave a new file name and did not refer to a file name before the
":cd".

*:filename*
Note for systems other than Unix and MS-DOS: When using a command that
accepts a single file name (like ":edit file") spaces in the file name are
allowed, but trailing spaces are ignored.  This is useful on systems that
allow file names with embedded spaces (like the Amiga).  Example: The command
":e   Long File Name " will edit the file "Long File Name".  When using a
command that accepts more than one file name (like ":next file1 file2")
embedded spaces must be escaped with a backslash.

On Unix you can also use backticks in the file name, for example:
:e find . -name ver\\*.c -print
The backslashes before the star are required to prevent "ver*.c" to be
expanded by the shell before executing the find program.

You can use the ":e!" command if you messed up the buffer and want to start
all over again.  The ":e" command is only useful if you have changed the
current filename.

Note that ":e file" will fail if there are changes in the current buffer,
also when the 'autowrite' option is on.  This is illogical, because with
other commands (e.g., ":next") the current buffer would be written and
abandoned, but this behaviour is compatible with Vi.  If you encounter this
problem, you can use CTRL-^ to jump to the file, because the alternate file
name is set to the argument of the ":e" command.

*:+cmd*
The [+cmd] can be used to position the cursor in the newly opened file:
+		Start at the last line.
+{num}		Start at line {num}.
+/{pat}		Start at first line containing {pat}.  {pat} must not
contain any spaces.
+{command}	Execute {command} after opening the new file.
{command} is an Ex command.  It must not contain
spaces.

*textmode_io*
When reading a file when the 'textmode' option is off (default for
non-MS-DOS) the <NL> character is interpreted as end-of-line.  If 'textmode'
is on (default for MS-DOS), <CR><NL> is also interpreted as end-of-line.

When writing a file when the 'textmode' option is off a <NL> character is
used to separate lines.  When the 'textmode' option is on <CR><NL> is used.
Also see |textmode_write|.

You can read a file with 'textmode' set and write it with 'textmode' reset.
This will replace all <CR><NL> pairs by <NL>.  If you read a file with
'textmode' reset and write with 'textmode' set, all <NL> characters will be
replaced with <CR><NL>.

If you start editing a new file and the 'textauto' option is on (which is the
default), Vim will try to detect whether the lines in the file are separated
by a single <NL> (as used on Unix and Amiga) or by a <CR><NL> pair (MS-DOS).
Only when ALL lines end in <CR><NL> the 'textmode' option is set, otherwise it
is reset.  If the 'textmode' option is set on non-MS-DOS systems the message
"[textmode]" is shown to remind you that something unusual is happening.  On
MS-DOS systems you get the message "[notextmode]" if the 'textmode' option is
not set.

If the 'textauto' option is off and 'textmode' is on, but while reading a file
some lines did not end in <CR><NL>, "[CR missing]" will be included in the
file message.

Before editing binary, executable or Vim script files you should set the
'textmode' and 'textauto' options off.  With 'textmode' on you risk that
single <NL> characters are unexpectedly replaced with <CR><NL>.  A simple way
to do this is by starting Vim with the "-b" option.

5.3 The argument list					*argument_list*

If you give more than one filename when starting Vim, this list is
remembered as the argument list.  Do not confuse this with the file list,
which you can see with the ":files" command |:files|.  The argument list was
already present in Vi, the file list is new in Vim.  The file names in the
argument list will also be present in the file list (unless they were
deleted with ":bdel").

You can use the argument list with the following commands:

*:ar* *:args*
:ar[gs]			Print the argument list, with the current file in
square brackets.

*:argu* *:argument*
:[count]argu[ment] [count] [+cmd]
Edit file [count] in the argument list, unless
changes have been made and the 'autowrite' option is
off.  {Vi: no such command}

:[count]argu[ment]! [count] [+cmd]
Edit file [count] in the argument list, discard any
changes to the current buffer.  {Vi: no such command}

*:n* *:next*
:[count]n[ext] [+cmd]	Edit [count] next file, unless changes have been
made and the 'autowrite' option is off {Vi: no
count}.

:[count]n[ext]! [+cmd]	Edit [count] next file, discard any changes to the
buffer {Vi: no count}.

:ar[gs] [+cmd] {arglist}
:n[ext] [+cmd] {arglist}
Define {arglist} as the new argument list and edit
the first one, unless changes have been made and the
'autowrite' option is off.

:ar[gs]! [+cmd] {arglist}
:n[ext]! [+cmd] {arglist}				*:next_f*
Define {arglist} as the new argument list and edit
the first one.  Discard any changes to the buffer.

:[count]N[ext] [count] [+cmd]				*:Next* *:N*
Edit [count] previous file in argument list, unless
changes have been made and the 'autowrite' option is
off {Vi: no count}.

:[count]N[ext]! [count] [+cmd]
Edit [count] previous file in argument list.  Discard
any changes to the buffer {Vi: no count}.

:[count]prev[ious] [count] [+cmd]			*:prev* *:previous*
Same as :Next {Vi: only in some versions}

*:rew* *:rewind*
:rew[ind] [+cmd]	Start editing the first file in the argument list,
unless changes have been made and the 'autowrite'
option is off.

:rew[ind]! [+cmd]	Start editing the first file in the argument list.
Discard any changes to the buffer.

*:la* *:last*
:la[st] [+cmd]		Start editing the last file in the argument list,
unless changes have been made and the 'autowrite'
option is off.  {not in Vi}

:la[st]! [+cmd]		Start editing the last file in the argument list.
Discard any changes to the buffer.  {not in Vi}

*:wn* *:wnext*
:[count]wn[ext] [+cmd]	Write current file and start editing the [count]
next file.  {not in Vi}

:[count]wn[ext] [+cmd] {file}
Write current file to {file} and start editing the
[count] next file, unless {file} already exists and
the 'writeany' option is off.  {not in Vi}

:[count]wn[ext]! [+cmd] {file}
Write current file to {file} and start editing the
[count] next file.  {not in Vi}

:[count]wN[ext][!] [+cmd] [file]			*:wN* *:wNext*
:[count]wp[revous][!] [+cmd] [file]			*:wp* *:wprevious*
Same as :wnext, but go to previous file instead of
next.  {not in Vi}

The [count] in the commands above defaults to one.  For some commands it is
possible to use two counts.  The last one (rightmost one) is used.

For [+cmd] see 5.2 |edit_a_file|.

The wildcards in the argument list are expanded and the filenames are sorted.
Thus you can use the command "vim *.c" to edit all the C files.  From within
Vim the command ":n *.c" does the same.  On Unix you can also use backticks,
for example:
:n find . -name \\*.c -print
The backslashes before the star are required to prevent "*.c" to be expanded
by the shell before executing the find program.

*arglist_quit*
You are protected from leaving Vim if you have not been editing the last file
in the argument list.  This prevents you from forgetting that you were editing
one out of several files.  To exit anyway try to exit twice.  If there are
changes in the current buffer this will fail.  You can exit anyway, and save
any changes, with the ":wq!" command.  To lose any changes use the ":q!"
command.

When there is an argument list you can see which file you are editing in the
title of the window (if there is one and 'title' is on) and with the file
message you get with the "CTRL-G" command.  You will see something like
(file 4 of 11)
If 'shortmess' contains 'f' it will be
(4 of 11)
If you are not really editing the file at the current position in the argument
list it will be
(file (4) of 11)
This means that you are position 4 in the argument list, but not editing the
fourth file in the argument list.  This happens when you do ":e file".

5.4 Writing and quitting			*write_quit* *save_file*

*:w* *:write*
:[range]w[rite][!]	Write the specified lines to the current file.

*:w_f* *:write_f*
:[range]w[rite]	{file}	Write the specified lines to {file}, unless it
already exists and the 'writeany' option is off.

*:w!*
:[range]w[rite]! {file}	Write the specified lines to {file}.  Overwrite an
existing file.

*:w_a* *:write_a*
:[range]w[rite][!] >>	Append the specified lines to the current file.

:[range]w[rite][!] >> {file}
Append the specified lines to {file}.  '!' forces the
write even if file does not exist.

*:w_c* *:write_c*
:[range]w[rite] !{cmd}	Execute {cmd} with [range] lines as standard input
(note the space in front of the '!').  {cmd} is
executed like with ":!{cmd}", any '!' is replaced with
the previous command |:!|.

The default [range] for the ":w" command is the whole buffer (1,$). If a file name is give with ":w" it becomes the alternate file. This can be used when the write fails and you want to try again later with ":w #". *:q* *:quit* :q[uit] Quit, unless changes have been made or not editing the last file in the argument list. :q[uit]! Quit always, without writing. :cq Quit always, without writing, and return an error code. Used for Manx's QuickFix mode (see 5.5 |quickfix|). *:wq* :wq Write the current file and exit (unless editing the last file in the argument list or the file is read-only). :wq! Write the current file and exit. :wq {file} Write to {file}. Exit if not editing the last file in the argument list. :wq! {file} Write to {file} and exit. :[range]wq[!] [file] Same as above, but only write the lines in [range]. *:x* *:xit* :[range]x[it][!] [file] Like ":wq", but write only when changes have been made. *:exi* *:exit* :[range]exi[t][!] [file] Same as :xit. *ZZ* ZZ Write current file, if modified, and exit (same as ":x"). (Note: If there are several windows for the current file, the file is written if it was modified and the window is closed). *ZQ* ZQ Quit current file and exit (same as ":q!"). (Note: If there are several windows for the current file, only the window is closed). *timestamp* Vim remembers the timestamp of the file when you start editing it. When you write a file the timestamp is checked. If the file has been changed since you started editing it, Vim will ask you if you really want to overwrite the file: WARNING: The file has been changed since reading it!!! Do you really want to write to it (y/n)? If you hit 'y' Vim will continue writing the file. If you hit 'n' the write is aborted. If you used ":wq" or "ZZ" Vim will not exit, you will get another chance to write the file. The message would normally mean that somebody has written to the file after the edit session started. This could be another person, in which case you probably want to check if your changes to the file and the changes from the other person should be merged. Write the file under another name and check for differences (the "diff" program can be used for this). It is also possible that you modified the file yourself, from another edit session or with another command (e.g., a filter command). Then you will know which version of the file you want to keep. *backup* If you write to an existing file (but do not append) while the 'backup', 'writebackup' or 'patchmode' option is on, a backup of the original file is made. On Unix systems the file is copied, on other systems the file is renamed. After the file has been successfully written and when the 'writebackup' option is on and the 'backup' option is off, the backup file is deleted. When the 'patchmode' option is on the backup file may be renamed. *backup_table* 'backup' 'writebackup' action off off no backup made off on backup current file, deleted afterwards (default) on off delete old backup, backup current file on on delete old backup, backup current file When the 'backup' option is on, an old backup file (with the same name as the new backup file) will be deleted. If 'backup' is not set, but 'writebackup' is set, an existing backup file will not be deleted. The backup file that is made while the file is being written will have a different name. The directories given with the 'backupdir' option is used to put the backup file in. (default: same directory as the written file). On Unix systems: When you write to an existing file, that file is truncated and then filled with the new text. This means that protection bits, owner and symbolic links are unmodified. The backup file however, is a new file, owned by the user who edited the file. The group of the backup is set to the group of the original file. If this fails, the protection bits for the group are made the same as for others. If the creation of a backup file fails, the write is not done. If you want to write anyway add a '!' to the command. *write_fail* If the writing of the new file fails, you have to be careful not to lose your changes AND the original file. If there is no backup file and writing the new file failed, you have already lost the original file! DON'T EXIT VIM UNTIL YOU WRITE OUT THE FILE! If a backup was made, it is put back in place of the original file (if possible). If you exit Vim, and lose the changes you made, the original file will mostly still be there. If putting back the original file fails, there will be an error message telling you that you lost the original file. *textmode_write* If the 'textmode' option is on <CR><NL> is used for end-of-line. This is default for MS-DOS, Win32 and OS/2. On other systems the message "[textmode]" is shown to remind you that an usual end-of-line marker was used. If the 'textmode' is not set NL is used for end-of-line. On MS-DOS, Win32 and OS/2 the message "[notextmode]" is shown. See also |textmode_io| and the 'textmode' and 'textauto' options. 5.5 Using the QuickFix mode *quickfix* Vim has a special mode to speedup the edit-compile-edit cycle. This is inspired by the quickfix option of the Manx's Aztec C compiler on the Amiga. The idea is to save the error messages from the compiler in a file and use Vim to jump to the errors one by one. You can then examine each problem and fix it, without having to remember all the error messages. If you are using Manx's Aztec C compiler on the Amiga you should do the following: - Set the CCEDIT environment variable with the command mset "CCEDIT=vim -e" - Compile with the -qf option. If the compiler finds any errors, Vim is started and the cursor is positioned on the first error. The error message will be displayed on the last line. You can go to other errors with the commands mentioned below. You can fix the errors and write the file(s). - If you exit Vim normally the compiler will re-compile the same file. If you exit with the :cq command, the compiler will terminate. Do this if you cannot fix the error, or if another file needs to be compiled first. If you are using another compiler you should save the error messages in a file and start Vim with "vim -e filename". An easy way to do this is with the ":make" command (see below). The 'errorformat' option should be set to match the error messages from your compiler (see below). The following commands can be used if you are in QuickFix mode: *:cc* :cc[!] [nr] Display error [nr]. If [nr] is omitted, the same error is displayed again. Without [!] this doesn't work when jumping to another buffer, the current buffer has been changed, there is the only window for the buffer and both 'hidden' and 'autowrite' are off. When jumping to another buffer with [!] any changes to the current buffer are lost, unless 'hidden' is set or there is another window for this buffer. {not in Vi} *:cn* *:cnext* :[count]cn[ext][!] Display the [count] next error in the list that includes a file name. If there are no file names at all, go the the [count] next error. See |:cc| for [!]. {not in Vi} :[count]cN[ext][!] *:cp* *:cprevious* *:cN* *:cNext* :[count]cp[revious][!] Display the [count] previous error in the list that includes a file name. If there are no file names at all, go the the [count] previous error. See |:cc| for [!]. {not in Vi} *:cq* *:cquit* :cq[uit] Quit Vim with an error code, so that the compiler will not compile the same file again. {not in Vi} *:cf* *:cfile* :cf[ile][!] [errorfile] Read the error file and jump to the first error. This is done automatically when Vim is started with the -e option. You can use this command when you keep Vim running while compiling. If you give the name of the errorfile, the 'errorfile' option will be set to [errorfile]. See |:cc| for [!]. {not in Vi} *:cl* *:clist* :cl[ist] List all errors that inlcude a file name. {not in Vi} :cl[ist]! List all errors. {not in Vi} *:mak* *:make* :mak[e] [arguments] 1. If the 'autowrite' option is on, write any changed buffers 2. Any existing 'errorfile' is deleted. 3. The program given with the 'makeprg' option is started (default "make") with the optional [arguments] and the output is saved in 'errorfile' (for Unix it is also echoed on the screen). 4. The 'errorfile' is then read and the first error is jumped to. 5. The 'errorfile' is deleted. {not in Vi} The name of the file can be set with the 'errorfile' option. The default is "AztecC.Err" for the Amiga and "errors.vim" for other systems. The format of the file from the Aztec compiler is: filename>linenumber:columnnumber:errortype:errornumber:errormessage filename name of the file in which the error was detected linenumber line number where the error was detected columnnumber column number where the error was detected errortype type of the error, normally a single 'E' or 'W' errornumber number of the error (for lookup in the manual) errormessage description of the error *errorformat* Another compiler is likely to use a different format. You should set the 'errorformat' option to a scanf-like string that describes the format. First, you need to know how scanf works. Look in the documentation of your C compiler. Vim will understand eight conversion characters. Others are invalid. %f file name (finds a string) %l line number (finds a number) %c column number (finds a number) %t error type (finds a single character) %n error number (finds a number) %m error message (finds a string) %*<conv> any scanf non-assignable conversion %% the single '%' character Examples: %f>%l:%c:%t:%n:%m" for the AztecC.Err file %f:%l:\ %t%*[^0123456789]%n:\ %m for Manx/Aztec C error messages (scanf() doesn't understand [0-9]) %f\ %l\ %t%*[^0-9]%n:\ %m for SAS C \"%f\"\\,%*[^0-9]%l:\ %m for generic C compilers %f:%l:\ %m for GCC %f(%l)\ :\ %*[^:]:\ %m old SCO C compiler (pre-OS5) %f(%l)\ :\ %t%*[^0-9]%n:\ %m idem, with error type and number %f:%l:\ %m,In\ file\ included\ from\ %f:%l:,\^I\^Ifrom\ %f:%l%m for GCC, with some extras Note the backslash in front of a space and double quote. It is required for the :set command. There are two backslashes in front of a comma, one for the :set command and one to avoid recognizing the comma as a separator of error formats. The "%f" and "%m" conversions have to detect the end of the string. They should be followed by a character that cannot be in the string. Everything up to that character is included in the string. Be careful: "%f%l" will include everything up to the first '%' in the file name. If the "%f" or "%m" is at the end, everything up to the end of the line is included. To be able to detect output from several compilers, several format patterns may be put in 'errorformat', separated by commas (note: blanks after the comma are ignored). The first pattern that has a complete match is used. If no match is found, matching parts from the last one will be used, although the file name is removed and the error message is set to the whole message. If there is a pattern that may match output from several compilers (but not in a right way), put it after one that is more restrictive. To include a comma in a pattern precede it with a backslash (you have to type two in a set command). To include a backslash itself give two backslashes (you have to type four in a set command). If a line is detected that does not completely match the 'errorformat', the whole line is put in the error message and the entry is marked "not valid" These lines are skipped with the ":cn" and ":cp" commands (unless there is no valid line at all). You can use ":cl!" to display all the error messages. If the error format does not contain a file name Vim cannot switch to the correct file. You will have to do this by hand. If you have a compiler that produces error messages that do not fit in the format string, you could write a program that translates the error messages into this format. You can use this program with the ":make" command by changing the 'makeprg' option. For example: ":set mp=make\ \\\|&\ error_filter". The backslashes before the pipe character are required to avoid it to be recognized as a command separator. The backslash before each space is required for the set command. *:make_makeprg* The ":make" command executes the command given with the 'makeprg' option. This is done by passing the command to the shell given with the 'shell' option. This works almost like typing ":!{makeprg} [arguments] {shellpipe} {errorfile}". {makeprg} is the string given with the 'makeprg' option. Any command can be used, not just "make". Characters '%' and '#' are expanded as usual on a command line. You can use "%<" to insert the current filename without extension, for example ":set makeprg=make\ %<.o". [arguments] is anything that is typed after ":make". {shellpipe} is the 'shellpipe' option. {errorfile} is the 'errorfile' option. The 'shellpipe' option defaults to ">" for the Amiga, MS-DOS and Win32. This means that the output of the compiler is saved in a file and not shown on the screen directly. For Unix "| tee" is used. The compiler output is shown on the screen and saved in a file the same time. Depending on the shell used "|& tee" or "2>&1| tee" is the default, so stderr output will be included. There are some restrictions to the Quickfix mode on the Amiga. The compiler only writes the first 25 errors to the errorfile (Manx's documentation does not say how to get more). If you want to find the others, you will have to fix a few errors and exit the editor. After recompiling, up to 25 remaining errors will be found. On the Amiga, if Vim was started from the compiler, the :sh and :! commands will not work, because Vim is then running in the same process as the compiler and these two commands may guru the machine then. If you insert or delete lines, mostly the correct error location is still found because hidden marks are used (Manx's Z editor does not do this). Sometimes, when the mark has been deleted for some reason, the message "line changed" is shown to warn you that the error location may not be correct. If you quit Vim and start again the marks are lost and the error locations may not be correct anymore. 5.6 Editing binary files *edit_binary* Although Vim was made to edit text files, it is possible to edit binary files. The "-b" Vim argument (b for binary) sets some options for editing binary files ('binary' on, 'textwidth' to 0, 'textmode' and 'textauto' off, 'modeline' off, 'expandtab' off). Setting the 'binary' option has the same effect. Don't forget to do this before reading the file. There are a few things to remember when editing binary files: - When editing executable files the number of characters must not change. Use only the "R" or "r" command to change text. Do not delete characters with "x" or by backspacing. - Set the 'textwidth' option to 0. Otherwise lines will unexpectedly be split in two. - When there are not many end-of-line characters, the lines will become very long. If you want to edit a line that does not fit on the screen reset the 'wrap' option. Horizontal scrolling is used then. If a line becomes too long (more than about 32767 characters on the Amiga, much more on 32-bit systems, see |limits|) you cannot edit that line. The line will be split when reading the file. It is also possible that you get an "out of memory" error when reading the file. - Make sure the 'textmode' and 'textauto' options are off before loading the file. In 'textmode' both <CR><NL> and <NL> are considered to end a line and when the file is written the <NL> will be replaced with <CR><NL>. The 'modelines' option should also be off, because there may be a string like ":vi:" in the file that would give unpredictable results. - <Nul> characters are shown on the screen as ^@. You can enter them with "CTRL-V CTRL-@" or "CTRL-V 000" {Vi cannot handle <Nul> characters in the file} - To insert a <NL> character in the file split up a line. When writing the buffer to a file a <NL> will be written for the end of line. - Vim normally appends an end-of-line character at the end of the file if there is none. Setting the 'binary' option prevents this. If you want to add the final end-of-line, set the 'endofline' option. You can also read the value of this option to see if there was an end-of-line character for the last line (you cannot see this in the text). 5.7 Automatic commands *autocommand* You can specify commands to be executed automatically for when reading or writing a file, when entering or leaving a buffer or window, and when exiting Vim. For example, 'cindent' can be set for files matching *.c, and unset otherwise. Autocommands can be used to edit compressed files. These commands are normally put in your .vimrc or .exrc file. {All this is not in Vi} WARNING: Using autocommands is very powerful, but may lead to unexpected side effects. Be careful not to destroy your text. - It's a good idea to first do some testing on a copy of a file first. For example: If you use autocommands to decompress a file when starting to edit it, make sure that the autocommands for compressing when writing work correctly. - Be prepared for an error halfway through (e.g., disk full). Vim will mostly be able to undo the changes to the buffer, but you may have to clean up the changes to other files by hand (e.g., compress a file that has been decompressed). - If the BufRead* events allow you to edit a compressed file, the FileRead* events should do the same (to be able to do recovery in some rare cases). It's a good idea to use the same autocommands for the File* and Buf* events when possible. The autocommand feature is only included if Vim has been compiled with AUTOCMD defined. If the output of ":version" contains "+autocmd" it is included (this is the default), if it contains "-autocmd" then the autocommand feature doesn't work. Note: This command cannot be followed by another command, since any '|' is considered part of the command. *:au* *:autocmd* :au[tocmd] {event} {pat} {cmd} Add {cmd} to the list of commands that will be automatically executed on {event} for a file matching {pat}. It is not added if it is already there (as may happen when .vimrc is sourced again). The order of entering {cmd} and {pat} is important. :au[tocmd] {event} {pat} Show the auto-commands associated with {event} and {pat}. :au[tocmd] * {pat} Show the auto-commands associated with {pat} for all events. :au[tocmd] {event} Show all auto-commands for {event}. :au[tocmd] Show all auto-commands. :au[tocmd]! {event} {pat} {cmd} Remove all auto-commands associated with {event} and {pat}, and add the command {cmd}. :au[tocmd]! {event} {pat} Remove all auto-commands associated with {event} and {pat}. :au[tocmd]! * {pat} Remove all auto-commands associated with {pat} for all events. :au[tocmd]! {event} Remove ALL auto-commands for {event}. :au[tocmd]! Remove ALL auto-commands. *:do* *:doautocmd* :do[autocmd] {event} [fname] Apply the autocommands matching [fname] (default: current file name) for {event} to the current buffer. This can be used when the current file name does not match the right pattern, after changing settings, or to execute autocommands for a certain event. *autocommand-events* These events are recognized. Case is ignored, for example "BUFread" and "bufread" can be used instead of "BufRead". *BufNewFile* BufNewFile When starting to edit a file that doesn't exist. Can be used to read in a skeleton file. *BufReadPre* BufReadPre When starting to edit a new buffer, before reading the file into the buffer. Not used when the file doesn't exist. *BufRead* *BufReadPost* BufRead or BufReadPost When starting to edit a new buffer, after reading the file into the buffer, before executing the modelines. This does NOT work for ":r file". Not used when the file doesn't exist. *FileReadPre* FileReadPre Before reading a file with a ":read" command. *FileReadPost* FileReadPost After reading a file with a ":read" command. Note that the '[ and '] marks are set to the first and last line of the read, this can be used to operate on the just read lines. *FilterReadPre* FilterReadPre Before reading a file from a filter command. The file name of the current buffer is used to match with the pattern, not the name of the temporary file that is the output of the filter command. *FilterReadPost* FilterReadPost After reading a file from a filter command. Like FilterReadPre, the file name of the current buffer is used. *BufWrite* *BufWritePre* BufWrite or BufWritePre Before writing the whole buffer to a file. *BufWritePost* BufWritePost After writing the whole buffer to a file (should undo the commands for BufWritePre). *FileWritePre* FileWritePre Before writing to a file, when not writing the whole buffer. *FileWritePost* FileWritePost After writing to a file, when not writing the whole buffer. *FileAppendPre* FileAppendPre Before appending to a file. *FileAppendPost* FileAppendPost After appending to a file. *FilterWritePre* FilterWritePre Before writing a file for a filter command. The file name of the current buffer is used to match with the pattern, not the name of the temporary file that is the input for the filter command. *FilterWritePost* FilterWritePost After writing a file for a filter command. Like FilterWritePre, the file name of the current buffer is used. *BufEnter* BufEnter After entering a buffer. Useful for setting options for a file type. Also executed when starting to edit a buffer, after the BufReadPost autocommands. *BufLeave* BufLeave Before leaving to another buffer. Also when leaving or closing the current window and the new current window is not for the same buffer. *WinEnter* WinEnter After entering another window. Not done for the first window, when Vim is just started. Useful for setting the window height. If the window is for another buffer, the BufEnter autocommands are executed after the WinEnter autocommands. *WinLeave* WinLeave Before leaving to another window. If the window to be entered is for a different buffer, the BufLeave autocommands are executed before the WinLeave autocommands. *VimLeave* VimLeave Before exiting Vim, just before writing the .viminfo file. There is no VimEnter event, because you can use the .vimrc for that. For READING FILES there are three possible pairs of events, only one pair is used at a time: BufNewFile starting to edit a non-existant file BufReadPre BufReadPost starting to edit an existing file FilterReadPre FilterReadPost read the temp file with filter output FileReadPre FileReadPost any other file read Note that the autocommands for the *ReadPre and *Filter* events are not allowed to change the current buffer. You will get an error message if this happens anyway. This is to prevent the file to be read into the wrong buffer. Before the *ReadPre event the '[ mark is set to the line just above where the new lines will be inserted. Before the *ReadPost event the '[ mark is set to the first line that was just read, the '] mark to the last line. Careful: '[ and '] will change when using commands that change the buffer. "<afile>" can be used for the file name that is being read, in commands where a file name is expected (where you can also use "%" for the current file name) |:<afile>|. Examples for reading compressed files: :autocmd! BufReadPre,FileReadPre *.gz set bin :autocmd BufReadPost,FileReadPost *.gz '[,']!gunzip :autocmd BufReadPost,FileReadPost *.gz set nobin NOTE: When using the examples given, any existing autocommands for the same event/pattern combination will be removed, because of the '!'. For WRITING FILES there are four possible pairs of events, only one pair is used at a time: BufWritePre BufWritePost writing the whole buffer FilterWritePre FilterWritePost writing to the temp file with filter input FileAppendPre FileAppendPost appending to a file FileWritePre FileWritePost any other file write Note that the *WritePost commands should undo any changes to the buffer that were caused by the *WritePre commands, otherwise writing the file will have the side effect of changing the buffer. Before executing the autocommands, the buffer from where the lines are to be written is temporarily made the current buffer. Unless the autocommands change the current buffer, or delete the previously current buffer, the previously current buffer is made the current buffer again. The *WritePre and *AppendPre autocommands must not delete the buffer from where the lines are to be written. Before executing the *WritePre and *AppendPre autocommands the '[ mark is set to the first line that will be written, the '] mark to the last line. Careful: '[ and '] will change when using commands that change the buffer. "<afile>" can be used for the file name that is being written, in commands where a file name is expected (where you can also use "%" for the current file name) |:<afile>|. Examples for writing compressed files: :autocmd! BufWritePost,FileWritePost *.gz !mv <afile> <afile>:r :autocmd BufWritePost,FileWritePost *.gz !gzip <afile>:r :autocmd! FileAppendPre *.gz !gunzip <afile> :autocmd FileAppendPre *.gz !mv <afile>:r <afile> :autocmd! FileAppendPost *.gz !mv <afile> <afile>:r :autocmd FileAppendPost *.gz !gzip <afile>:r ("<afile>:r" is the file name without the extension, see |:_%:|) The commands executed for the BufNewFile, BufRead/BufReadPost, BufWritePost, FileAppendPost and VimLeave events do not set or reset the changed flag of the buffer. When you decompress the buffer with the BufReadPost autocommands, you can still exit with ":q". When you use ":undo" in BufWritePost to undo the changes made by BufWritePre commands, you can still do ":q" (this also makes "ZZ" work). To execute Normal mode commands from an autocommand, use the ":normal" command. Use with care! If the Normal mode command is not finished, the user needs to type characters (e.g., after ":normal m" you need to type a mark name). If you want the buffer not to be modified after changing it, reset the 'modified' option. This makes it possible to exit the buffer with ":q" instead of ":q!". Autocommands do not nest. If you use ":r" or ":w" in an autocommand, the BufRead and BufWrite autocommands are not executed for those commands. It's also not possible to use the ":au" command in an autocommand (that could be a self-modifying command!). There is currently no way to disable the autocommands. If you want to write a file without executing the autocommands for that type of file, write it under another name and rename it with a shell command. Note: When reading a file (with ":read file" or with a filter command) and the last line in the file does not have an end-of-line character, this is remembered. At the next write (with ":write file" or with a filter command), if the same line is written again as the last line in a file AND 'binary' is set, no end-of-line character is written. This makes a filter command on the just read lines write the same file as was read, and makes a write command on just filtered lines write the same file as was read from the filter. For example, another way to write a compressed file: :autocmd FileWritePre *.gz set bin|'[,']!gzip :autocmd FileWritePost *.gz undo|set nobin *autocommand-pattern* Multiple patterns may be given separated by commas. Here are some examples: :autocmd BufRead * set tw=79 nocin ic infercase fo=2croq :autocmd BufRead .letter set tw=72 fo=2tcrq :autocmd BufEnter .letter set dict=/usr/lib/dict/words :autocmd BufLeave .letter set dict= :autocmd BufRead,BufNewFile *.c,*.h set tw=0 cin noic :autocmd BufEnter *.c,*.h abbr FOR for(i = 0; i < 3; i++)^M{^M}^[O :autocmd BufLeave *.c,*.h unabbr FOR For makefiles (makefile, Makefile, imakefile, makefile.unix, etc.): :autocmd BufEnter ?akefile* set include=^s\=include :autocmd BufLeave ?akefile* set include& To always start editing C files at the first function: :autocmd BufRead *.c,*.h 1;/^{ Without the "1;" above, the search would start from wherever the file was entered, rather than from the start of the file. To read a skeleton file for new C files: :autocmd BufNewFile *.c 0r ~/.skeleton.c :autocmd BufNewFile *.h 0r ~/.skeleton.h To insert the current date and time in a *.html file when writing it: :autocmd BufWritePre,FileWritePre *.html ks|1,20g/Last modification: /normal f:lD:read !date^MkJ's (to insert the ^M type CTRL-V CTRL-M) You need to have a line "Last modification: <date time>" in the first 20 lines of the file for this to work. The <date time> (and anything in the same line after it) will be replaced with the current date and time. Explanation: ks mark current position with mark 's' 1,20g/pattern/ find lines that contain the pattern normal f: find the ':' lD delete the old date and time !date^M read the current date and time into the next line kJ Join the date and time with the previous line 's return the cursor to the old position When entering :autocmd on the command line, completion of events and command names may be done (with <Tab>, CTRL-D, etc.) where appropriate. All matching auto-commands will be executed in the order that they were specified. It is recommended that your first auto-command be used for all files by using "*" as the file pattern. This means that you can define defaults you like here for any settings, and if there is another matching auto-command it will override these. But if there is no other matching auto-command, then at least your default settings are recovered (if entering this file from another for which auto-commands did match). Note that "*" will also match files starting with ".", unlike Unix shells. Normally the file pattern is tested for a match against just the tail part of the file name (without its leading directory path), but if a path separator character (eg '/' on Unix) appears in the pattern, then it will be tested against the full file name. For example: :autocmd BufRead */vim/src/* set wrap Note that using ~ in a file name (for home directory) doesn't work. Use a pattern that matches the full path name, for example "*home/user/.cshrc". 6. Cursor motions *cursor_motions* ================= These commands move the cursor position. If the new position is off of the screen, the screen is scrolled to show the cursor (see also 'scrolljump' and 'scrolloff' options). *operator* The motion commands can be used after an operator command, to have the command operate on the text that was moved over. That is the text between the cursor position before and after the motion. Operators are generally used to delete or change text. The following operators are available: |c| c change |d| d delete |y| y yank into register (does not change the text) |~| ~ swap case (only if 'tildeop' is set) |g~| g~ swap case |gu| gu make lower case |gU| gU make upper case |!| ! filter through an external program |=| = filter through 'equalprg' or C-indenting if empty |Q| Q text formatting (obsolete) |gq| gq text formatting |>| > shift right |<| < shift left If the motion includes a count and the operator also had a count before it, the two counts are multiplied. For example: "2d3w" deletes six words. The operator either affects whole lines, or the characters between the start and end position. Generally, motions that move between lines affect lines (are linewise), and motions that move within a line affect characters. However, there are some exceptions. A character motion is either inclusive or exclusive. When inclusive, the start and end position of the motion are included in the operation. When exclusive, the last character towards the end of the buffer is not included. Linewise motions always include the start and end position. Which motions are linewise, inclusive or exclusive is mentioned below. There are however, two general exceptions: 1. If the motion is exclusive and the end of the motion is in column 1, the end of the motion is moved to the end of the previous line and the motion becomes inclusive. Example: "}" ends at the first line after a paragraph, but "V}" will not include that line. 2. If the motion is exclusive, the end of the motion is in column 1 and the start of the motion was at or before the first non-blank in the line, the motion becomes linewise. Example: If a paragraph begins with some blanks and you do "d}" while standing on the first non-blank, all the lines of the paragraph are deleted, including the blanks. If you do a put now, the deleted lines will be inserted below the cursor position. Instead of first giving the operator and then a motion you can use Visual mode: mark the start of the text with "v", move the cursor to the end of the text that is to be affected and then hit the operator. The text between the start and the cursor position is highlighted, so you can see what text will be operated upon. This allows much more freedom, but requires more key strokes and has limited redo functionality. See the chapter on Visual mode |Visual_mode|. If you want to know where you are in the file use the "CTRL-G" command |CTRL-G| or the "g CTRL-G command |g_CTRL-G|. If you set the 'ruler' option, the cursor position is continuously shown in the status line (which slows down Vim a little). NOTE: Experienced users prefer the hjkl keys because they are always right under their fingers. Beginners often prefer the arrow keys, because they do not know what the hjkl keys do. The mnemonic value of hjkl is clear from looking at the keyboard. Think of j as an arrow pointing downwards. 6.1 Left-right motions *left_right_motions* h or *h* <Left> or *<Left>* CTRL-H or *CTRL-H* *<BS>* <BS> [count] characters to the left (exclusive). Note: If you prefer <BS> to delete a character, use the mapping: :map CTRL-V<BS> X (to enter "CTRL-V<BS>" type the CTRL-V key, followed by the <BS> key) See |:fixdel| if the <BS> key does not do what you want. l or *l* <Right> or *<Right>* *<Space>* <Space> [count] characters to the right (exclusive). *0* 0 To the first character of the line (exclusive). When moving up or down, stay in same screen column (if possible). *<Home>* <Home> To the first character of the line (exclusive). When moving up or down, stay in same text column (if possible). Works like "1|", which differs from "0" when the line starts with a <Tab>. {not in Vi} *^* ^ To the first non-blank character of the line (exclusive). *$* *<End>*
$or <End> To the end of line and [count - 1] lines downward (inclusive). *g0* *g<Home>* g0 or g<Home> When lines wrap ('wrap on): To the first character of the screen line (exclusive). Differs from "0" when a line is wider than the screen. When lines don't wrap ('wrap' off): To the leftmost character of the current line that is on the screen. Differs from "0" when the first character of the line is not on the screen. {not in Vi} *g^* g^ When lines wrap ('wrap' on): To the first non-blank character of the screen line (exclusive). Differs from "^" when a line is wider than the screen. When lines don't wrap ('wrap' off): To the leftmost non-blank character of the current line that is on the screen. Differs from "^" when the first non-blank character of the line is not on the screen. {not in Vi} *g$* *g<End>*
g$or g<End> When lines wrap ('wrap' on): To the last character of the screen line and [count - 1] screen lines downward (inclusive). Differs from "$" when a line is wider
than the screen.
When lines don't wrap ('wrap' off): To the righmost
character of the current line that is visible on the
screen.  Differs from "$" when the last character of the line is not on the screen or when a count is used. {not in Vi} *bar* | To screen column [count] in the current line (exclusive). *f* f{char} To [count]'th occurrence of {char} to the right. The cursor is placed on {char} (inclusive). *F* F{char} To the [count]'th occurrence of {char} to the left. The cursor is placed on {char} (inclusive). *t* t{char} Till before [count]'th occurrence of {char} to the right. The cursor is placed on the character left of {char} (inclusive). *T* T{char} Till after [count]'th occurrence of {char} to the left. The cursor is placed on the character right of {char} (inclusive). *;* ; Repeat latest f, t, F or T [count] times. *,* , Repeat latest f, t, F or T in opposite direction [count] times. These commands move the cursor to the specified column in the current line. They stop at the first column and at the end of the line, except "$", which
may move to one of the next lines.  See 'whichwrap' option to make some of the
commands move accross line boundaries.

6.2 Up-down motions					*up_down_motions*

k		or					*k*
<Up>		or					*<Up>* *CTRL-P*
CTRL-P			[count] lines upward (linewise).

j		or					*j*
<Down>		or					*<Down>*
CTRL-J		or					*CTRL-J*
<NL>		or					*<NL>* *CTRL-N*
CTRL-N			[count] lines downward (linewise).

gk		or					*gk* *g<Up>*
g<Up>			[count] display lines upward (exclusive).  Differs
from 'k' when lines wrap.  {not in Vi}

gj		or					*gj* *g<Down>*
g<Down>			[count] display lines downward (exclusive).  Differs
from 'j' when lines wrap.  {not in Vi}

*-*
-  <minus>		[count] lines upward, on the first non-blank
character (linewise).

+		or					*+*
CTRL-M		or					*CTRL-M* *<CR>*
<CR>			[count] lines downward, on the first non-blank
character (linewise).

*_*
_  <underscore>		[count] - 1 lines downward, on the first non-blank
character (linewise).

<C-End>		or					*G* *<C-End>*
G			Goto line [count], default last line, on the first
non-blank character (linewise).  If 'startofline' not
set, keep the same column.

<C-Home>	or					*gg* *<C-Home>*
gg			Goto line [count], default first line, on the first
non-blank character (linewise).  If 'startofline' not
set, keep the same column.

:[range]		Set the cursor on the (last) specified line number
(cannot be used with an operator).

*N%*
{count}%		Go to {count} percentage in the file, on the first
non-blank in the line (linewise).  To compute the new
line number this formula is used: {count} *
option.  {not in Vi}

These commands move to the specified line.  They stop when reaching the first
or the last line.  The first two commands put the cursor in the same column
(if possible) as it was after the last command that changed the column,
except after the "$" command, then the cursor will be put on the last character of the line. 6.3 Word motions *word_motions* <S-Right> or *<S-Right>* *w* w [count] words forward (exclusive). *W* W [count] WORDS forward (exclusive). *e* e Forward to the end of word [count] (inclusive). *E* E Forward to the end of WORD [count] (inclusive). <S-Left> or *<S-Left>* *b* b [count] words backward (exclusive). *B* B [count] WORDS backward (exclusive). *ge* ge Backward to the end of word [count] (inclusive). *gE* gE Backward to the end of WORD [count] (inclusive). These commands move over words or WORDS. *word* A word consists of a sequence of letters, digits and underscores, or a sequence of other non-blank characters, separated with white space (spaces, tabs, end of line). This can be changed with the 'iskeyword' option. *WORD* A WORD consists of a sequence of non-blank characters, separated with white space. An empty line is also considered to be a word and a WORD. Special case: "cw" and "cW" are treated like "ce" and "cE" if the cursor is on a non-blank. This is because "cw" is interpreted as change-word, and a word does not include the following white space. {Vi: "cw" when on a blank followed by other blanks changes only the first blank; this is probably a bug, because "dw" deletes all the blanks} Another special case: When using the "w" motion in combination with an operator and the last word moved over is at the end of a line, the end of that word becomes the end of the operated text, not the first word in the next line. The original Vi implementation of "e" is buggy. For example, the "e" command will stop on the first character of a line if the previous line was empty. But when you use "2e" this does not happen. In Vim "ee" and "2e" are the same, which is more logical. However, this causes a small incompatibility between Vi and Vim. 6.4 Text object motions *object_motions* *(* ( [count] sentences backward (exclusive). *)* ) [count] sentences forward (exclusive). *{* { [count] paragraphs backward (exclusive). *}* } [count] paragraphs forward (exclusive). *]]* ]] [count] sections forward or to the next '{' in the first column. When used after an operator, then the '}' in the first column. (linewise). *][* ][ [count] sections forward or to the next '}' in the first column (linewise). *[[* [[ [count] sections backward or to the previous '{' in the first column (linewise). *[]* [] [count] sections backward or to the previous '}' in the first column (linewise). These commands move over three kinds of text objects. *sentence* A sentence is defined as ending at a '.', '!' or '?' followed by either the end of a line, or by a space. {Vi: two spaces} Any number of closing ')', ']', '"' and ''' characters my appear after the '.', '!' or '?' before the spaces or end of line. A paragraph and section boundary is also a sentence boundary. *paragraph* A paragraph begins after each empty line, and also at each of a set of paragraph macros, specified by the pairs of characters in the 'paragraphs' option. The default is "IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp", which corresponds to the macros ".IP", ".LP", etc. (These are nroff macros, so the dot must be in the first column). A section boundary is also a paragraph boundary. Note that this does not include a '{' or '}' in the first column. *section* A section begins after a form-feed (<C-L>) in the first column and at each of a set of section macros, specified by the pairs of characters in the 'sections' option. The default is "SHNHH HUnhsh". The "]" and "[" commands stop at the '{' or <}" in the first column. This is useful to find the start or end of a function in a C program. Note that the first character of the command determines the search direction and the second character the type of brace found. 6.5 Text object selection *object_select* *v_a* a select [count] words (see |word|). {not in Vi} *v_A* A select [count] WORDS (see |WORD|). {not in Vi} *v_s* s select [count] sentences (see |sentence|). {not in Vi} *v_p* p select [count] paragraphs (see |paragraph|). {not in Vi} *v_S* S select [count] blocks, from "[count] [(" to the matching ')' (see |[(|). {not in Vi} *v_P* P select [count] blocks, from "[count] [{" to the matching '}' (see |[{|). {not in Vi} These object selection commands can only be used in Visual mode and after an operator. When used after an operator: For non-block objects: The operator applies to the object and the white space after the object. If there is no white space after the object or when the cursor was in the white space before the object, the white space before the object is included. For a block object: The operator applies to the block excluding the surrounding braces. If the cursor was on one of the braces (or on the indent before '{' or '}) they are included. When used in Visual mode: When start and end of the Visual area are the same (just after typing "v"): One object is selected, the same as for using an operator. When start and end of the Visual area are not the same: For non-block objects the area is extended by one object or the white space up to the next object. The direction in which this happens depends on which side of the Visual area the cursor is. For the block objects the block is extended one level outwards. For illustration, here is a list of delete commands, grouped from small to big objects. Note that for a single character and a whole line the existing vi movement commands are used. "dl" delete character (alias: "x") |dl| "da" delete word *da* "dA" delete WORD (see |WORD|) *dA* "dd" delete line |dd| "ds" delete sentence *ds* "dS" delete '(' ')' block *dS* "dp" delete paragraph *dp* "dP" delete '{' '}' block *dP* Note the difference between using a movement command and an object. The movement command operates from here (cursor position) to where the movement takes us. When using an object the whole object is operated upon, no matter where on the object the cursor is. For example, compare "dw" and "da": "dw" deletes from the cursor position to the start of the next word, "da" deletes the word under the cursor and the space after or before it. 6.6 Pattern searches *pattern_searches* */* /{pattern}[/]<CR> Search forward for the [count]'th occurrence of {pattern} (exclusive). /{pattern}/{offset}<CR> Search forward for the [count]'th occurrence of {pattern} and go {offset} lines up or down (see below). (linewise). */<CR>* /<CR> Search forward for the [count]'th latest used pattern with latest used {offset}. //{offset}<CR> Search forward for the [count]'th latest used pattern with new {offset}. If {offset} is empty no offset is used. *?* ?{pattern}[?]<CR> Search backward for the [count]'th previous occurrence of {pattern} (exclusive). ?{pattern}?{offset}<CR> Search backward for the [count]'th previous occurrence of {pattern} and go {offset} lines up or down (see below) (linewise). *?<CR>* ?<CR> Search backward for the [count]'th latest used pattern with latest used {offset}. ??{offset}<CR> Search backward for the [count]'th latest used pattern with new {offset}. If {offset} is empty no offset is used. *n* n Repeat the latest "/" or "?" [count] times. {Vi: no count} *N* N Repeat the latest "/" or "?" [count] times in opposite direction. {Vi: no count} *star* * Search forward for the [count]'th occurrence of the word nearest to the cursor. The word used for the search is the first of: 1. the keyword under the cursor |'iskeyword'| 2. the first keyword after the cursor, in the current line 3. the non-blank word under the cursor 4. the first non-blank word after the cursor, in the current line Only whole keywords are searched for, like with the command "/\<keyword\>". (exclusive) {not in Vi} *#* # Same as "*", but search backward. The English pound sign (character 163) also works. If the "#" key works as backspace, try using "stty erase <BS>" before starting Vim (<BS> is CTRL-H or a real backspace). {not in Vi} *gstar* g* Like "*", but don't put "\<" and "\>" around the word. This makes the search also find matches that are not a whole word. {not in Vi} *g#* g# Like "#", but don't put "\<" and "\>" around the word. This makes the search also find matches that are not a whole word. {not in Vi} *gd* gd Goto local Declaration. When the cursor is on a local variable, this command will jump to its declaration. First a search is made for the end of the previous function, just like "[]". If it is not found the search stops in line 1. From this position a search is made for the keyword under the cursor, like with "*", but lines that look like a comment are ignored (see 'comments' option). Note that this is not guaranteed to work, Vim does not really check the syntax, it only searches for a match with the keyword. If included files also need to be searched use the commands listed in |include_search|. {not in Vi} *gD* gD Goto global Declaration. When the cursor is on a global variable that is defined in the file, this command will jump to its declaration. This works just like "gd", except that the search for the keyword always starts in line 1. {not in Vi} *CTRL-C* CTRL-C Interrupt current (search) command. While typing the search pattern the current match will be shown if the 'incsearch' option is on. Remember that you still have to finish the search command with <CR> to actually position the cursor at the displayed match. Or use <Esc> to abandon the search. These commands search for the specified pattern. With "/" and "?" an additional offset may be given. There are two types of offsets: line offsets and character offsets. {the character offsets are not in Vi} *search_offset* The offset gives the cursor position relative to the found match: [num] [num] lines downwards, in column 1 +[num] [num] lines downwards, in column 1 -[num] [num] lines upwards, in column 1 e[+num] [num] characters to the right of the end of the match e[-num] [num] characters to the left of the end of the match s[+num] [num] characters to the right of the start of the match s[-num] [num] characters to the left of the start of the match b[+num] [num] characters to the right of the start (begin) of the match b[-num] [num] characters to the left of the start (begin) of the match If a '-' or '+' is given but [num] is omitted, a count of one will be used. When including an offset with 'e', the search becomes inclusive (the character the cursor lands on is included in operations). Examples: pattern cursor position /test/+1 one line below "test", in column 1 /test/e on the last t of "test" /test/s+2 on the 's' of "test" /test/b-3 three characters before "test" If one of these commands is used after an operator, the characters between the cursor position before and after the search is affected. However, if a line offset is given, the whole lines between the two cursor positions are affected. *//;* A very special offset is ';' followed by another search command. For example: /test 1/;/test /test.*/+1;?ing? The first one first finds the next occurence of "test 1", and then the first occurence of "test" after that. This is like executing two search commands after each other, except that: - It can be used as a single motion command after an operator. - The direction for a following "n" or "N" command comes from the first search command. - When an error occurs the cursor is not moved at all. The last used <pattern> and <offset> are remembered. They can be used to repeat the search, possibly in another direction or with another count. Note that two patterns are remembered: one for 'normal' search commands and one for the substitute command ":s". Each time an empty <pattern> is given, the previously used <pattern> is used. In Vi the ":tag" command sets the last search pattern when the tag is searched for. In Vim this is not done, the previous search pattern is still remembered, unless the 't' flag is present in 'cpoptions'. The search pattern is always put in the search history. If the 'wrapscan' option is on (which is the default), searches wrap around the end of the buffer. If 'wrapscan' is not set, the backward search stops at the beginning and the forward search stops at the end of the buffer. If 'wrapscan' is set and the pattern was not found the error message "pattern not found" is given, and the cursor will not be moved. If 'wrapscan' is not set the message becomes "search hit BOTTOM without match" when searching forward, or "search hit TOP without match" when searching backward. If wrapscan is set and the search wraps around the end of the file the message "search hit TOP, continuing at BOTTOM" or "search hit BOTTOM, continuing at TOP" is given when searching backwards or forwards respectively. This can be switched off by setting the 's' flag in the 'shortmess' option. The highlight method 'w' is used for this message (default: standout). *search_range* You cannot limit the search command "/" to a certain range of lines. A trick to do this anyway is to use the ":substitute" command with the 'c' flag. Example: :.,300s/Pattern//gc This command will search from the cursor position until line 300 for "Pattern". At the match, you will be asked to type a character. Type 'q' to stop at this match, type 'n' to find the next match. The "*", "#", "g*" and "g#" commands look for a word near the cursor in this order, the first one that is found is used: - The keyword currently under the cursor. - The first keyword to the right of the cursor, in the same line. - The WORD currently under the cursor. - The first WORD to the right of the cursor, in the same line. The keyword may only contain letters and characters in 'iskeyword'. The WORD may contain any non-blanks (<Tab>s and/or <Space>s). Note that if you type with ten fingers, the characters are easy to remember: the "#" is under your left hand middle finger (search to the left and up) and the "*" is under your right hand middle finger (search to the right and down). The definition of a pattern: *search_pattern* Patterns may contain special characters, depending on the setting of the 'magic' option. */bar* */\bar* 1. A pattern is one or more branches, separated by "\|". It matches anything that matches one of the branches. Example: "foo\|beep" matches "foo" and "beep". 2. A branch is one or more pieces, concatenated. It matches a match for the first, followed by a match for the second, etc. Example: "foo[0-9]beep", first match "foo", then a digit and then "beep". 3. A piece is an atom, possibly followed by: magic nomagic */star* */\star* * \* matches 0 or more of the preceding atom */\+* \+ \+ matches 1 or more of the preceding atom {not in Vi} */\=* \= \= matches 0 or 1 of the preceding atom {not in Vi} Examples: .* .\* matches anything, also empty string ^.\+$	^.\+$matches any non-empty line foo\= foo\= matches "fo" and "foo" 4. An atom can be: - One of these five: magic nomagic ^ ^ at beginning of pattern, matches start of line */^*$	$at end of pattern or in front of "\|", */$*
matches end of line
.	\.	matches any single character		  */.* */\.*
\<	\<	matches the beginning of a word			*/\<*
\>	\>	matches the end of a word			*/\>*
\i	\i	matches any identifier character (see		*/\i*
'isident' option) {not in Vi}
\I	\I	like "\i", but excluding digits {not in Vi}	*/\I*
\k	\k	matches any keyword character (see		*/\k*
'iskeyword' option) {not in Vi}
\K	\K	like "\k", but excluding digits {not in Vi}	*/\K*
\f	\f	matches any file name character (see		*/\f*
'isfname' option) {not in Vi}
\F	\F	like "\f", but excluding digits {not in Vi}	*/\F*
\p	\p	matches any printable character (see		*/\p*
'isprint' option) {not in Vi}
\P	\P	like "\p", but excluding digits {not in Vi}	*/\P*
\e	\e	<Esc>						*/\e*
\t	\t	<Tab>						*/\t*
\r	\r	<CR>						*/\r*
\b	\b	<BS>						*/\b*
~	\~	matches the last given substitute string    */~* */\~*
		A pattern enclosed by escaped parentheses      */*
(e.g., "$$^a$$") matches that pattern
x	x	A single character, with no special meaning,
matches itself
\x	\x	A backslash followed by a single character,	*/\*
with no special meaning, matches the single
character
[]	\[]	A range. This is a sequence of characters	*/[]*
enclosed in "[]" or "\[]".  It matches any	*/\[]*
single character from the sequence.  If the
sequence begins with "^", it matches any
single character NOT in the sequence.  If two
characters in the sequence are separated by '-', this
is shorthand for the full list of ASCII characters
between them.  E.g., "[0-9]" matches any decimal
digit.  To include a literal "]" in the sequence, make
it the first character (following a possible "^").
E.g., "[]xyz]" or "[^]xyz]".  To include a literal
'-', make it the first or last character.

If the 'ignorecase' option is on, the case of letters is ignored.

It is impossible to have a pattern that contains a line break.

Examples:
^beep(			Probably the start of the C function "beep".

[a-zA-Z]$Any alphabetic character at the end of a line. \<\I\i or $$^\|[^a-zA-Z0-9_]$$[a-zA-Z_]\+[a-zA-Z0-9_]* A C identifier (will stop in front of it). $$\.\|\.$$ A period followed by end-of-line or a space. Note that "$$\. \|\.$$" does not do the same, because '$' is not end-of-line in front of '\)'.
This was done to remain Vi-compatible.

[.!?][])"']*$$\|[ ]$$	A search pattern that finds the end of a sentence,
with almost the same definition as the ")" command.

Technical detail:
<Nul> characters in the file are stored as <NL> in memory.  In the display
they are shown as "^@".  The translation is done when reading and writing
files.  To match a <Nul> with a search pattern you can just enter CTRL-@ or
"CTRL-V 000".  This is probably just what you expect.  Internally the
character is replaced with a <NL> in the search pattern.  What is unusual is
that typing CTRL-V CTRL-J also inserts a <NL>, thus also searches for a
<Nul> in the file.  {Vi cannot handle <Nul> characters in the file at all}

6.7 Various motions				*various_motions*

*m*
m<a-zA-Z>		Set mark <a-zA-Z> at cursor position (does not move
the cursor, this is not a motion command).

*:ma* *:mark*
:[range]ma[rk] <a-zA-Z>	Set mark <a-zA-Z> at last line number in [range],
column 0.  Default is cursor line.

*:k*
:[range]k<a-zA-Z>	Same as :mark, but the space before the mark name can
be omitted.

*'* *'a*
'<a-z>			To the first non-blank character on the line with
mark <a-z> (linewise).
*'A* *'0*
'<A-Z0-9>		To the first non-blank character on the line with
mark <A-Z0-9> in the correct file (linewise when in
same file, not a motion command when in other file).
{not in Vi}

** *a*
<a-z>			To the mark <a-z> (exclusive).
*A* *0*
<A-Z0-9>		To the mark <A-Z0-9> in the correct file (exclusive
when in same file, not a motion command when in
other file).  {not in Vi}

*:marks*
:marks			List all the current marks (not a motion command).
{not in Vi}

:marks {arg}		List the marks that are mentioned in {arg} (not a
motion command).  For example:
:marks aB
to list marks 'a' and 'B'.  {not in Vi}

A mark is not visible in any way.  It is just a position in the file that is
remembered.  Do not confuse marks with named registers, they are totally
unrelated.

'a - 'z		lowercase marks, valid within one file
'A - 'Z		uppercase marks, also called file marks, valid between files
'0 - '9		numbered marks, set from .viminfo file

Lowercase marks 'a to 'z are remembered as long as the file remains in the
buffer list.  If you remove the file from the buffer list, change a character
in a line or delete a line that contains a mark, that mark is erased.
Lowercase marks can be used in combination with operators.  For example: "d't"
deletes the lines from the cursor position to mark 't'.  Hint: Use mark 't' for
Top, 'b' for Bottom, etc..  Lowercase marks are restored when using undo and
redo.

Uppercase marks 'A to 'Z include the file name.  {Vi: no uppercase marks} You
can use them to jump from file to file.  You can only use an uppercase mark
with an operator if the mark is in the current file.  The line number of the
mark remains correct, even if you insert/delete lines or edit another file for
a moment.  When the 'viminfo' option is not empty, uppercase marks are kept in
the .viminfo file.  See |viminfo_file_marks|.

Numbered marks '0 to '9 are quite different.  They can not be set directly.
They are only present when using a viminfo file |viminfo_file|.  Basically '0
is the location of the cursor when you last exited Vim, '1 the last but one
time, etc.  See |viminfo_file_marks|.

*'[*
'[			To the first non-blank character on the first line
of the previously operated, inserted or putted text.
{not in Vi}

*[*
[			To the first character of the previously operated,
inserted or putted text.  {not in Vi}

*']*
']			To the first non-blank character on the last line of
the previously operated, inserted  or putted text.
{not in Vi}

*]*
]			To the last character of the previously operated,
inserted or putted text. {not in Vi}

After executing an operator the Cursor is put at the beginning of the text
that was operated upon.  After a put command ("p" or "P") the cursor is
sometimes placed at the first inserted line and sometimes on the last inserted
character.  The four commands above put the cursor at either end.  Example:
After yanking 10 lines you want to go to the last one of them: "10Y']".  After
inserting several lines with the "p" command you want to jump to the lowest
inserted line: "p']".  This also works for text that has been inserted.

Note: After deleting text, the start and end positions are the same, except
when using blockwise Visual mode.  These commands do not work when no
operator or put command has been used yet in the current file.

*'<*
'<			To the first non-blank character on the first line
of the last selected Visual area.  {not in Vi}.

*<*
<			To the first character of the last selected Visual
area.  {not in Vi}.

*'>*
'>			To the first non-blank character on the last line
of the last selected Visual area.  {not in Vi}.

*>*
>			To the last character of the last selected Visual
area.  {not in Vi}.

*''*
''			To the first non-blank character of the line where
the cursor was before the latest jump (linewise).

**
			To the position before latest jump (exclusive).

*'"*
'"			To the first non-blank character of the line where
the cursor was the last time the current buffer was
exited (linewise).  {not in Vi}.

*"*
"			To the cursor position when last exiting the current
buffer (exclusive).  {not in Vi}.

A "jump" is one of the following commands: "'", "", "G", "/", "?", "n",
"N", "%", "(", ")", "[[", "]]", "{", "}", ":s", ":tag", "L", "M", "H" and
the commands that start editing a new file.  If you make the cursor "jump"
with one of these commands, the position of the cursor before the jump is
remembered.  You can return to that position with the "''" and "" command,
unless the line containing that position was changed or deleted.

*CTRL-O*
CTRL-O			Go to [count] Older cursor position in jump list
(not a motion command).  {not in Vi}

<Tab>		or					*CTRL-I* *<Tab>*
CTRL-I			Go to [count] newer cursor position in jump list
(not a motion command).  {not in Vi}

*:ju* *:jumps*
:ju[mps]		Print the jump list (not a motion command).  {not in
Vi}

*jumplist*
Jumps are remembered in a jump list.  With the CTRL-O and CTRL-I command you
can go to cursor positions before older jumps, and back again.  Thus you can
move up and down the list.

For example, after three jump commands you have this jump list:

jump line  file
1	 1  -current-
2	70  -current-
3  1154  -current-
>

You are currently in line 1167.  If you then use the CTRL-O command, the
cursor is put in line 1154.  This results in:

jump line  file
1	 1  -current-
2	70  -current-
>  3  1154  -current-
4  1167  -current-

The pointer will be set at the last used jump position.  The next CTRL-O
command will use the entry above it, the next CTRL-I command will use the
entry below it.  If the pointer is below the last entry, this indicates that
you did not use a CTRL-I or CTRL-O before.  In this case the CTRL-O command
will cause the cursor position to be added to the jump list, so you can get
back to the position before the CTRL-O.  In this case this is line 1167.

With more CTRL-O commands you will go to lines 70 and 1.  If you use CTRL-I
you can go back to 1154 and 1167 again.

If you use a jump command, the current line number is inserted at the end of
the jump list.  If the same line was already in the jump list, it is removed.
The result is that when repeating CTRL-O you will get back to old positions
only once.

After the CTRL-O command that got you into line 1154 you could give another
jump command (e.g., "G").  The jump list would then become:

jump line  file
1	 1  -current-
2	70  -current-
3  1167  -current-
4  1154  -current-
>

The line numbers will be adjusted for deleted and inserted lines.  This fails
if you stop editing a file without writing, like with ":n!".

*%*
%			Find the next item in this line after or under the
cursor and jump to its match (inclusive).  Items can
be:
([{}])		parenthesis or (curly/square) brackets
/* */		start or end of C-style comment
#if, #ifdef, #else, #elif, #endif
C preprocessor conditionals
Parens and braces preceded with a backslash are
ignored.  When the '%' character is not present in
'cpoptions', parens and braces inside quotes are
ignored, unless the number of parens/braces in a line
is uneven and this line and the previous one does not
end in a backslash.  No count is allowed ({count}%
jumps to a line {count} percentage down the file).
Using '%' on #if/#else/#endif makes the movement
linewise.

*[(*
[(			go to [count] previous unmatched '('.  {not in Vi}

*[{*
[{			go to [count] previous unmatched '{'.  {not in Vi}

*])*
])			go to [count] next unmatched ')'.  {not in Vi}

*]}*
]}			go to [count] next unmatched '}'.  {not in Vi}

The above four commands can be used to go to the start or end of the current
code block.  It is like doing "%" on the '(', ')', '{' or '}' at the other
end of the code block, but you can do this from anywhere in the code block.
Very useful for C programs.  Example: When standing on "case x:", "[{" will
bring you back to the switch statement.

*[#*
[#			go to [count] previous unmatched "#if" or "#else".
{not in Vi}

*]#*
]#			go to [count] next unmatched "#else" or "#endif".  {not
in Vi}

These two commands work in C programs that contain #if/#else/#endif
constructs.  It brings you to the start or end of the #if/#else/#endif where
the current line is included.  You can then use "%" to go to the matching line.

*[star* *[/*
[*  or  [/		go to [count] previous start of a C comment "/*".  {not
in Vi}

*]star* *]/*
]*  or  ]/		go to [count] next end of a C comment "*/".  {not
in Vi}

*H*
H			To line [count] from top (Home) of screen (default:
first line on the screen) on the first non-blank
Cursor is adjusted for 'scrolloff' option.

*M*
M			To Middle line of screen, on the first non-blank

*L*
L			To line [count] from bottom of screen (default: Last
line on the screen) on the first non-blank character
Cursor is adjusted for 'scrolloff' option.

<LeftMouse>		Moves to the position on the screen where the mouse
click is (inclusive).  See also |<LeftMouse>|.  If the
position is in a status line, that window is made the
active window and the cursor is not moved.  {not in Vi}

7. Scrolling						*scrolling*
============

Move edit window (the part of the buffer that you see) downwards (this means
that more lines downwards in the text buffer are seen):

*CTRL-E*
CTRL-E			Scroll window [count] lines downwards in the buffer.
Mnemonic: Extra lines.

*CTRL-D*
CTRL-D			Scroll window Downwards in the buffer.  The number of
lines comes from the 'scroll' option (default: half a
screen).  If [count] given, first set 'scroll' option
to [count].  The cursor is moved the same number of
lines down in the file (if possible; when lines wrap
and when hitting the end of the file there may be a
difference).  When the cursor is on the last line of
the buffer nothing happens and a beep is produced.
{difference from vi: Vim scrolls 'scroll' screen
lines, instead of file lines; makes a difference when
lines wrap}

<S-Down>	or					*<S-Down>*
<PageDown>	or					*<PageDown>* *CTRL-F*
CTRL-F			Scroll window [count] pages Forwards (downwards) in

Move edit window (the part of the buffer that you see) upwards (this means
that more lines upwards in the text buffer are seen):

*CTRL-Y*
CTRL-Y			Scroll window [count] lines upwards in the buffer.

*CTRL-U*
CTRL-U			Scroll window Upwards in the buffer.  The number of
lines comes from the 'scroll' option (default: half a
screen).  If [count] given, first set the 'scroll'
option to [count].  The cursor is moved the same
number of lines up in the file (if possible; when
lines wrap and when hitting the end of the file there
may be a difference).  When the cursor is on the first
line of the buffer nothing happens and a beep is
{difference from vi: Vim scrolls 'scroll' screen
lines, instead of file lines; makes a difference when
lines wrap}

<S-Up>		or					*<S-Up>*
<PageUp>	or					*<PageUp>* *CTRL-B*
CTRL-B			Scroll window [count] pages Backwards (upwards) in the

Window repositioning:

*z* *z<CR>*
z<CR>			Redraw, line [count] at top of window (default
cursor line).  Put cursor at first non-blank in the
line.

*zt*
zt			Like "z<CR>", but leave the cursor in the same
column.  {not in Vi}

*zN<CR>*
z{height}<CR>		Redraw, make window {height} lines tall.  This is
useful to make the number of lines small when screen
updating is very slow.  Cannot make the height more
than the physical screen height.

*z.*
z.			Redraw, line [count] at center of window (default
cursor line).  Put cursor at first non-blank in the
line.

*zz*
zz			Like "z.", but leave the cursor in the same column.
Careful: If caps-lock is on, this commands becomes
"ZZ": write buffer and exit!  {not in Vi}

*z-*
z-			Redraw, line [count] at bottom of window (default
cursor line).  Put cursor at first non-blank in the
line.

*zb*
zb			Like "z-", but leave the cursor in the same column.
{not in Vi}

These commands move the contents of the window.  If the cursor position is
moved off of the window, the cursor is moved onto the window (with
'scrolloff' screen lines around it).  A page is the number of lines in the
window minus two.  The mnemonics for these commands may be a bit confusing.
Remember that the commands refer to moving the window upwards or downwards
in the buffer.  When the window moves upwards in the buffer, the text in the
window moves downwards on your screen.

z<Right>    or						*zl* *z<Right>*
zl			Scroll the screen [count] characters to the left.
This only works when 'wrap' is off.  {not in Vi}

z<Left>      or						*zh* *z<Left>*
zh			Scroll the screen [count] characters to the right.
This only works when 'wrap' is off.  {not in Vi}

For these two commands the cursor follows the screen.  If the character that
the cursor is on is moved off the screen, the cursor is moved to the closest
character that is on the screen.  The value of 'sidescroll' is not used.

*zs*
zs			Scroll the screen horizontally to position the cursor
at the start (left side) of the screen.  This only
works when 'wrap' is off.  {not in Vi}

*ze*
ze			Scroll the screen horizontally to position the cursor
at the end (right side) of the screen.  This only
works when 'wrap' is off.  {not in Vi}

For these two commands the cursor is not moved in the text, only the text
scrolls on the screen.

8. Tags and special searches				*tags_and_searches*
============================

8.1 Tags						*tag_commands*

*:ta* *:tag*
:ta[g][!] {ident}	Jump to the definition of {ident}, using the
information in the tags file.  Put {ident} in the tag
stack.  See below for [!].

g<LeftMouse>						*g<LeftMouse>*
<C-LeftMouse>					*<C-LeftMouse>* *CTRL-]*
CTRL-]			":ta" to the keyword under or after cursor.  Put the
keyword in the tag stack.  {Vi: identifier after the
cursor}

*v_CTRL-]*
{Visual}CTRL-]		":ta" to the text that is highlighted.  {not in Vi}

g<RightMouse>						*g<RightMouse>*
<C-RightMouse>					*<C-RightMouse>* *CTRL-T*
CTRL-T			Jump to [count] older entry in the tag stack
(default 1).  {not in Vi}

*:po* *:pop*
:[count]po[p][!]	Jump to [count] older entry in tag stack (default 1).
See below for [!].  {not in Vi}

:[count]ta[g][!]	Jump to [count] newer entry in tag stack (default 1).
See below for [!].  {not in Vi}

*:tags*
:tags			Show the contents of the tag stack.  The active
entry is marked with a '>'.  {not in Vi}

A tag is an identifier that appears in the "tags" file.  It is a sort of label
that can be jumped to.  For example: In C programs each function name can be
used as a tag.

With the ":tag" command the cursor will be positioned on the tag.  With the
CTRL-] command, the keyword on which the cursor is standing is used as the
tag.  If the cursor is not on a keyword, the first keyword to the right of the
cursor is used.

*tag_priority*
When there are multiple matches for a tag, this priority is used:
1.  The first matching static tag with a full matching tag for the current
file.
2.  The first matching global tag with a full matching tag.
3.  The first matching static tag with a full matching tag for another file.
4.  The first matching static tag with an ignore-case matching tag for the
current file.
5.  The first matching global tag with an ignore-case matching tag.
6.  The first matching static tag with an ignore-case matching tag for another
file.

*static_tag*
A static tag is a tag that is defined for a specific file.  In a C program this
could be a static function.

In Vi jumping to a tag sets the current search pattern.  This means that
the "n" command after jumping to a tag does not search for the same pattern
that it did before jumping to the tag.  Vim does not do this as we consider it
to be a bug.  You can still find the tag search pattern in the search history.
If you really want the old Vi behaviour, set the 't' flag in 'cpoptions'.

If the tag is in the current file this will always work.  Otherwise the
performed actions depend on whether the current file was changed, whether a !
is added to the command and on the 'autowrite' option:

tag in       file	   autowrite
current file  changed	!   option	  action
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
yes		 x	x     x	  goto tag
no		 no	x     x	  read other file, goto tag
no		yes    yes    x   abandon current file, read other file, goto
tag
no		yes	no    on  write current file, read other file, goto
tag
no		yes	no   off  fail
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

- If the tag is in the current file, the command will always work.
- If the tag is in another file and the current file was not changed, the
other file will be made the current file and read into the buffer.
- If the tag is in another file, the current file was changed and a ! is
added to the command, the changes to the current file are lost, the other
file will be made the current file and read into the buffer.
- If the tag is in another file, the current file was changed and the
'autowrite' option is on, the current file will be written, the other
file will be made the current file and read into the buffer.
- If the tag is in another file, the current file was changed and the
'autowrite' option is off, the command will fail.  If you want to save
the changes, use the ":w" command and then use ":tag" without an argument.
This works because the tag is put on the stack anyway.  If you want to lose
the changes you can use the ":tag!" command.

The ":tag" command works very well for C programs.  If you see a call to a
function and wonder what that function does, position the cursor inside of
the function name and hit CTRL-].  This will bring you to the function
definition.  An easy way back is with the CTRL-T command.  Also read about the
tag stack below.

A tags file can be created with the external command 'ctags'.  It will
contain a tag for each function.  Some versions of 'ctags' will also make a
tag for each "#defined" macro.

The lines in the tags file should have this format:

{tag}{separator}{filename}{separator}{command}

{tag}		the identifier
{separator}	one or more <Tab> or space characters
{filename}	the file that contains the definition of {tag}
{command}	the Ex command that positions the cursor on the tag.

The identifier normally is the name of a function, but it can be any
identifier.  There is one special form for local (static) functions:
{filename}:{identifier}.  Some ctags programs make use of this to separate
local (static) functions from global functions.
(Detail: Vim compares only the last part of the filename and ignores any
path before it).

*tag_search*
The command can be any Ex command, but normally it is a search command like
"/^main(argc, argv)"
If it is a search command, and the search fails, another try is done ignoring
case.  If that fails too, a search is done for:
"^main[ \t]*("
(the tag with '^' prepended and "[ \t]*(" appended).  When using function
names, this will find the function name when it is in column 0.  This will
help when the arguments to the function have changed since the tags file was
made.  If this search also fails another search is done with:
"^[#a-zA-Z_].*main[ \t]*("
This means: A line starting with '#' or an identifier and containing the tag
followed by white space and a '('.  This will find macro names and function
names with a type prepended.  {the extra searches are not in Vi}.

Note that Vim forbids some commands, for security reasons.  This works like
using the 'secure' option for exrc/vimrc files in the current directory.  See
|trojan_horse|. {this security prevention is not present in Vi}.

In Vi the ":tag" command sets the last search pattern when the tag is searched
for.  In Vim this is not done, the previous search pattern is still remembered,
unless the 't' flag is present in 'cpoptions'.  The search pattern is always
put in the search history.

*emacs_tags*
Emacs style tag files are supported if Vim was compiled with EMACS_TAGS
defined.  Check the output of ":version", if it contains "+emacs_tags" then it
was.  Sorry, there is no explanation about Emacs tag files here, it is only
supported for backwards compatibility :-).

*tags_option*
The 'tags' option is a list of file names.  Each of these files is searched
for the tag.  This can be used to use a different tags file than the default
file "tags".  It can also be used to access a common tags file.

The next file in the list is not used when:
- A matching static tag for the current buffer has been found.
- A matching global tag has been found.
This also depends on the 'ignorecase' option.  If it is off, and the tags file
only has a match without matching case, the next tags file is searched for a
match with matching case.  If no tag with matching case is found, the first
match without matching case is used.  If 'ignorecase' is on, and a matching
global tag with or without matching case is found, this one is used, no
further tags files are searched.

When a tag file name starts with "./", the '.' is replaced with the path of
the current file.  This makes it possible to use a tags file in the directory
where the current file is (no matter what the current directory is).  The idea
of using "./" is that you can define which tag file is searched first: In the
current directory ("tags,./tags") or in the directory of the current file
("./tags,tags").

For example:

:set tags=./tags,tags,/home/user/commontags

In this example the tag will first be searched for in the file "tags" in the
directory where the current file is.  Next the "tags" file in the current
directory.  If it is not found there, then the file "/home/user/commontags"
will be searched for the tag.

Instead of the comma a space may be used.  Then a backslash is required for
the space to be included in the string option:

:set tags=tags\ /home/user/commontags

To include a space in a file name use three backslashes.  To include a comma in
a file name use two backslashes.  For example, use:

:set tags=tag\\\ file,/home/user/common\\,tags

for the files "tag file" and "/home/user/common,tags".  The 'tags' option will
have the value "tag\ file,/home/user/common\,tags".

If the 'tagrelative' option is on (which is the default) and using a tag file
in another directory, file names in that tag file are relative to the
directory where the tag file is.

*tagstack*
The tags that you use are remembered in the tag stack.  You can print this
stack with the ":tags" command.  The result looks like this:

# TO tag	FROM line in file
1 main	       1  harddisk2:text/vim/test
> 2 FuncA	      58  -current-
3 FuncC	     357  harddisk2:text/vim/src/amiga.c

This list shows the tags that you jumped to and the cursor position before that
jump.  The older tags are at the top, the newer at the bottom.

The '>' points to the active entry.  This is the tag that will be used by the
next ":tag" command.  The CTRL-T and ":pop" command will use the position
above the active entry.

The line number and file name are remembered to be able to get back to where
you were before the tag command.  The line number will be correct, also when
deleting/inserting lines, unless this was done by another program (e.g.
another instance of Vim).

You can jump to previously used tags with several commands.  Some examples:

":pop" or CTRL-T	to position before previous tag
{count}CTRL-T		to position before {count} older tag
":tag"			to newer tag
":0tag"			to last used tag

The most obvious way to use this is while browsing through the call graph of
a program.  Consider the following call graph:

main  --->  FuncA  --->  FuncC
--->  FuncB

(Explanation: main calls FuncA and FuncB; FuncA calls FuncC).
You can get from main to FuncA by using CTRL-] on the call to FuncA.  Then
you can CTRL-] to get to FuncC.  If you now want to go back to main you can
use CTRL-T twice.  Then you can CTRL-] to FuncB.

If you issue a ":ta {ident}" or CTRL-] command, this tag is inserted at the
current position in the stack.  If the stack was full (it can hold up to 20
entries), the oldest entry is deleted and the older entries shift one
position up (their index number is decremented by one).  If the last used
entry was not at the bottom, the entries below the last used one are
deleted.  This means that an old branch in the call graph is lost.  After the
commands explained above the tag stack will look like this:

# TO tag	FROM line in file
1 main	       1  harddisk2:text/vim/test
2 FuncB	      59  harddisk2:text/vim/src/main.c
>

8.2 Include file searches				*include_search*

These commands look for a string in the current file and in all encountered
included files (recursively).  This can be used to find the definition of a
variable, function or macro.  If you only want to search in the current
buffer, use the commands listed at |pattern_searches|.

When a line is encountered that includes another file, that file is searched
before continuing in the current buffer.  Files included by included files are
also searched.  When an include file could not be found it is silently
ignored.  Use the ":checkpath" command to discover which files could not be
found, possibly your 'path' option is not set up correctly.  Note: the
included file is searched, not a buffer that may be editing that file.  Only
for the current file the lines in the buffer are used.

The string can be any keyword or a defined macro.  For the keyword any match
will be found.  For defined macros only lines that match with the 'define'
option will be found.  The default is "\^#[ \t]*define", which is for C
programs.  Also, when a match is found for a defined macro, the displaying of
lines continues with the next line when a line ends in a backslash.

The commands that start with "[" start searching from the start of the current
file.  The commands that start with "]" start at the current cursor position.

The 'include' option is used to define a line that includes another file.  The
default is "\^#[ \t]*include", which is for C programs.  Note: Vim does not
recognize C syntax, if the 'include' option matches a line inside
"#ifdef/#endif" or inside a comment, it is searched anyway.  The 'isfname'
option is used to recognize the file name that comes after the matched
pattern.

The 'path' option is used to find the directory for the include files that
do not have an absolute path.

The 'comments' option is used for the commands that display a single line or
jump to a line.  It defines patterns that may start a comment.  Those lines
are ignored for the search, unless [!] is used.  One exception: When the line
matches the pattern "^# *define" it is not considered to be a comment.

*[i*
[i			Display the first line that contains the keyword
under the cursor.  The search starts at the beginning
of the file.  Lines that look like a comment are
ignored (see 'comments' option).  If a count is given,
the count'th matching line is displayed.  {not in Vi}

*]i*
]i			like "[i", but start at the current cursor position.
{not in Vi}

*:is* *:isearch*
:[range]is[earch][!] [count] [/]pattern[/]
Like "[i"  and "]i", but search in [range] lines
(default: whole file).  Without [!] lines that are
recognized as comments are skipped.  Without [/] only
whole words are matched, using the pattern
"\<pattern\>".  {not in Vi}

*[I*
[I			Display all lines that contain the keyword under the
cursor.  File names and line numbers are displayed
for the found lines.  The search starts at the
beginning of the file.  {not in Vi}

*]I*
]I			like "[I", but start at the current cursor position.
{not in Vi}

*:il* *:ilist*
:[range]il[ist][!] [/]pattern[/]
Like "[I" and "]I", but search in [range] lines
(default: whole file).  Without [!] lines that are
recognized as comments are skipped.  Without [/] only
whole words are matched, using the pattern
"\<pattern\>".  {not in Vi}

*[_CTRL-I*
[ CTRL-I		Jump to the first line that contains the keyword
under the cursor.  The search starts at the beginning
of the file.  Lines that look like a comment are
ignored (see 'comments' option).  If a count is given,
the count'th matching line is jumped to.  {not in Vi}

*]_CTRL-I*
] CTRL-I		like "[ CTRL-I", but start at the current cursor
position.  {not in Vi}

*:ij* *:ijump*
:[range]ij[ump][!] [count] [/]pattern[/]
Like "[ CTRL-I"  and "] CTRL-I", but search in
[range] lines (default: whole file).  Without [!]
lines that are recognized as comments are skipped.
Without [/] only whole words are matched, using the
pattern "\<pattern\>".  {not in Vi}

CTRL-W CTRL-I					*CTRL-W_CTRL-I* *CTRL-W_i*
CTRL-W i		Open a new window, with the cursor on the first line
that contains the keyword under the cursor.  The
search starts at the beginning of the file.  Lines
that look like a comment line are ignored (see
'comments' option).  If a count is given, the count'th
matching line is jumped to.  {not in Vi}

*:isp* *:isplit*
:[range]isp[lit][!] [count] [/]pattern[/]
Like "CTRL-W i"  and "CTRL-W i", but search in
[range] lines (default: whole file).  Without [!]
lines that are recognized as comments are skipped.
Without [/] only whole words are matched, using the
pattern "\<pattern\>".  {not in Vi}

*[d*
[d			Display the first macro definition that contains the
macro under the cursor.  The search starts from the
beginning of the file.  If a count is given, the
count'th matching line is displayed.  {not in Vi}

*]d*
]d			like "[d", but start at the current cursor position.
{not in Vi}

*:ds* *:dsearch*
:[range]ds[earch][!] [count] [/]pattern[/]
Like "[d"  and "]d", but search in [range] lines
(default: whole file).  Without [!] lines that are
recognized as comments are skipped.  Without [/] only
whole words are matched, using the pattern
"\<pattern\>".  {not in Vi}

*[D*
[D			Display all macro definitions that contain the macro
under the cursor.  File names and line numbers are
displayed for the found lines.  The search starts
from the beginning of the file.  {not in Vi}

*]D*
]D			like "[D", but start at the current cursor position.
{not in Vi}

*:dl* *:dlist*
:[range]dl[ist][!] [/]pattern[/]
Like "[D"  and "]D", but search in [range] lines
(default: whole file).  Without [!] lines that are
recognized as comments are skipped.  Without [/] only
whole words are matched, using the pattern
"\<pattern\>".  {not in Vi}

*[_CTRL-D*
[ CTRL-D		Jump to the first macro definition that contains the
keyword under the cursor.  The search starts from
the beginning of the file.  If a count is given, the
count'th matching line is jumped to.  {not in Vi}

*]_CTRL-D*
] CTRL-D		like "[ CTRL-D", but start at the current cursor
position.  {not in Vi}

*:dj* *:djump*
:[range]dj[ump][!] [count] [/]pattern[/]
Like "[ CTRL-D"  and "] CTRL-D", but search  in
[range] lines (default: whole file).  Without [!]
lines that are recognized as comments are skipped.
Without [/] only whole words are matched, using the
pattern "\<pattern\>".  {not in Vi}

CTRL-W CTRL-D					*CTRL-W_CTRL-D* *CTRL-W_d*
CTRL-W d		Open a new window, with the cursor on the first
macro definition line that contains the keyword
under the cursor.  The search starts from the
beginning of the file.  If a count is given, the
count'th matching line is jumped to.  {not in Vi}

*:dsp* *:dsplit*
:[range]dsp[lit][!] [count] [/]pattern[/]
Like "CTRL-W d", but search in [range] lines
(default: whole file).  Without [!] lines that are
recognized as comments are skipped.  Without [/] only
whole words are matched, using the pattern
"\<pattern\>".  {not in Vi}

*:che* *:checkpath*
:che[ckpath]		List all the included files that could not be found.
{not in Vi}

:che[ckpath]!		List all the included files.  {not in Vi}

9. Inserting text					*inserting*
=================

The following commands can be used to insert new text into the buffer.  They
can all be undone.  The non-Ex commands can be repeated with the "." command.

*a*
a			Append text after the cursor [count] times.

*A*
A			Append text at the end of the line [count] times.

<Insert>	or				*i* *insert* *<Insert>*
i			Insert text before the cursor [count] times.

*I*
I			Insert text before the first CHAR on the line
[count] times.

*gI*
gI			Insert text in column 1 [count] times.  {not in Vi}

*o*
o			Begin a new line below the cursor and insert text,
repeat [count] times.  {Vi: blank [count] screen
lines}

*O*
O			Begin a new line above the cursor and insert text,
repeat [count] times.  {Vi: blank [count] screen
lines}

These commands are used to start inserting text.  They can be undone and
repeated.  You can end Insert mode with <Esc>.  See the section "Insert and
Replace mode" |mode_ins_repl| for the other special characters in Insert
mode.  The effect of [count] takes place after Insert mode is exited.

When 'autoindent' is on, the indent for a new line is obtained from the
previous line.  When 'smartindent' or 'cindent' is on, the indent for a line
is automatically adjusted for C programs.

'textwidth' can be set to the maximum width for a line.  When a line becomes
too long when appending characters a line break is automatically inserted.

:r[ead] [name]		Insert the file [name] (default: current file) below
the cursor.

:{range}r[ead] [name]	Insert the file [name] (default: current file) below
the specified line.

:r[ead] !{cmd}		Execute {cmd} and insert its standard output below
the cursor.  A temporary file is used to store the
output of the command which is then read into the
buffer.  'shellredir' is used to save the output of
the command, which can be set to include stderr or
not.  {cmd} is executed like with ":!{cmd}", any '!'
is replaced with the previous command |:!|.

These commands insert the contents of a file, or the output of a command,
into the buffer.  They can be undone.  They cannot be repeated with the "."
command.  They work on a line basis, insertion starts below the line in which
the cursor is, or below the specified line.  To insert text above the first
line use the command ":0r {name}".

The <NL> character is recognized as end-of-line marker.  If the 'textmode'
option is on, a <CR> in front of an <NL> is ignored and a CTRL-Z at the end
of the file is ignored.  The 'textmode' option is default on for MS-DOS, Win32
and OS/2.

If the 'textauto' option is on Vim tries to recognize the type of end-of-line
marker (see |textmode_io|).  However, the 'textmode' option will not be
changed.  Only while reading the file the text mode is used or not.

On non-MS-DOS, Win32, and OS/2 systems the message "[textmode]" is shown if a
file is read in text mode, to remind you that something unusual is done.  On
MS-DOS, Win32, and OS/2 the message "[notextmode]" is shown if a file is read
without text mode.

An example on how to use ":r !":
:r !uuencode binfile binfile
This command reads "binfile", uuencodes it and reads it into the current
buffer.  Useful when you are editing e-mail and want to include a binary
file.

10. Deleting text					*deleting*
=================

["x]<Del>	or					*<Del>* *x* *dl*
["x]x			Delete [count] characters under and after the cursor
[into register x] (not linewise).  Does the same as
"dl".  See |:fixdel| if the <Del> key does not do what
you want.  Also see |'whichwrap'|.  {<Del> not in Vi}

*X* *dh*
["x]X			Delete [count] characters before the cursor [into
register x] (not linewise).  Does the same as "dh".
Also see |'whichwrap'|.

*d*
["x]d{motion}		Delete text that is moved over [into register x].
See below for exception.

*dd*
["x]dd			Delete [count] lines [into register x] (linewise).

*D*
["x]D			Delete the characters under the cursor until the end
of the line and [count]-1 more lines [into register
x]; synonym for d$(not linewise). {Visual}["x]x or *v_x* *v_d* {Visual}["x]d Delete the highlighted text [into register x] (see the chapter on Visual mode |Visual_mode|). {not in Vi} {Visual}["x]X or *v_X* *v_D* {Visual}["x]D Delete the highlighted lines [into register x] (see the chapter on Visual mode |Visual_mode|). {not in Vi} *:d* *:delete* :[range]d[elete] [x] Delete [range] lines (default: current line) [into register x]. :[range]d[elete] [x] {count} Delete {count} lines, starting with [range] (default: current line |cmdline_ranges|) [into register x]. These commands delete text. They can be repeated with the "." command (except ":d") and undone. Use Visual mode to delete blocks of text. See |registers| for an explanation of registers. An exception for the d{motion} command: If the motion is not linewise, the start and end of the motion are not in the same line and before the start and after the end are only blanks, the delete becomes linewise. This means that the blank line that would remain is also deleted. *J* J Join [count] lines, with a minimum of two lines. *v_J* {Visual}J Join the highlighted lines, with a minimum of two lines. {not in Vi} *:j* *:join* :[range]j[oin][!] Join [range] lines. Same as "J", except when [!] is given, then no spaces will be inserted or deleted. When [range] is given and the start and end of the range are equal, nothing happens. Default is to join two lines. :[range]j[oin][!] {count} Join {count} lines, starting with [range] (default: current line |cmdline_ranges|). Same as "J", except when [!] is given, then no spaces will be inserted or deleted. These commands delete the newline between lines. This has the effect of joining them into one line. They can be repeated (except ":j") and undone. One space is inserted in place of the <NL>, unless the line ended with a space, <Tab> or the next line started with a ')'. If the next line has leading white space it is deleted first. If the 'joinspaces' option is on, two spaces are inserted after a period. 11. Changing text *changing* ================= The following commands can be used to change text, that is delete some text and insert something else, with one command. They can all be undone. The non-Ex commands can be repeated with the "." command. 11.1 Delete and insert *delete_insert* *R* R Enter Replace mode: Each character you type replaces an existing character, starting with the character under the cursor. Repeat the entered text [count]-1 times. *c* ["x]c{motion} Delete {motion} text [into register x] and start insert. *cc* ["x]cc Delete [count] lines [into register x] and start insert (linewise). If 'autoindent' is on, preserve the indent of the first line. *C* ["x]C Delete from the cursor position to the end of the line and [count]-1 more lines [into register x], and start insert. Synonym for c$ (not linewise).

*s*
["x]s			Delete [count] characters [into register x] and start
insert (s stands for Substitute).  Synonym for "cl"
(not linewise).

*S*
["x]S			Delete [count] lines [into register x] and start
insert.  Synonym for "cc" (not linewise).

{Visual}["x]c	or					*v_c* *v_r*
{Visual}["x]r		Delete the highlighted text [into register x] and
start insert (see the chapter on Visual mode
|Visual_mode|).  {not in Vi}

{Visual}["x]C	or					*v_C* *v_R*
{Visual}["x]R		Delete the highlighted lines [into register x] and
start insert (see the chapter on Visual mode
|Visual_mode|).  {not in Vi}

Notes:
- You can end Insert and Replace mode with <Esc>.
- See the section "Insert and Replace mode" |mode_ins_repl| for the other
special characters in these modes.
- The effect of [count] takes place after Insert or Replace mode is exited.
- When the 'cpoptions' option contains '$', and the change is within one line, the text is not directly deleted, but a '$' is put at the last deleted
character.

See |registers| for an explanation of registers.

Replace mode is just like Insert mode, except that for every character you
enter, one character is deleted.  If the end of a line is reached, further
characters are appended (just like Insert mode).  In Replace mode the
backspace key restores the original text (if there was any) (see section
"Insert and Replace mode" |mode_ins_repl|).

*cw* *cW*
Special case: "cw" and "cW" are treated like "ce" and "cE" if the cursor is
on a non-blank.  This is because "cw" is interpreted as change-word, and a
word does not include the following white space.  {Vi: "cw" when on a blank
followed by other blanks changes only the first blank; this is probably a
bug, because "dw" deletes all the blanks}

11.2 Simple changes					*simple_change*

*r*
r{char}			Replace the character under the cursor with {char}.  If
{char} is a <CR> or <NL> the character will be
replaced with a line break.  Replacing with a real <CR>
can be done by using CTRL-V <CR>.  CTRL-V <NL> will
replace with a <Nul>.  {Vi: CTRL-V <CR> still replaces
with a line break, cannot replace something with a
<CR>}
If a [count] is given that many characters will be
replaced with [count] {char}s.  When {char} is a <CR>
or <NL> only one is inserted.  "5r<CR>" replaces five
characters with a single line break;
When replacing with a <CR> or <NL> autoindenting is
done.  This works just like deleting the characters
that are replaced and then doing "i<CR><Esc>".

*~*
~			'notildeop' option: switch case of the character
under the cursor and move the cursor to the right.
If a [count] is given do that many characters {Vi:
no count}

~{motion}		'tildeop' option: switch case of {motion} text.  {Vi:
tilde cannot be used as an operator}

*g~*
g~{motion}		switch case of {motion} text.  {Not in Vi}

*v_~*
{Visual}~		switch case of highlighted text (see the chapter on
Visual mode |Visual_mode|).  {not in Vi}

*v_U*
{Visual}U		Make highlighted text uppercase (see the chapter on
Visual mode |Visual_mode|).  {not in Vi}

*gU*
gU{motion}		Make {motion} text uppercase.  {not in Vi}

*v_u*
{Visual}u		Make highlighted text lowercase (see the chapter on
Visual mode |Visual_mode|).  {not in Vi}

*gu*
gu{motion}		Make {motion} text lowercase.  {not in Vi}

*CTRL-A*
CTRL-A			Add [count] to the number at or after the cursor.
{not in Vi}

*CTRL-X*
CTRL-X			Subtract [count] from the number at or after the
cursor.  {not in Vi}

The CTRL-A and CTRL-X commands work for (signed) decimal numbers and
unsigned octal and hexadecimal numbers.  Numbers starting with '0x' or '0X'
are assumed to be hexadecimal.  To decide whether the hexadecimal number
should be printed uppercase or not, the case of the rightmost letter in the
number is considered.  If there is no letter in the current number, the
previously detected case is used.  Numbers starting with a '0' are considered
to be octal.  Other numbers are decimal and may be preceded with a minus
sign.  If the cursor is on a number, that one will be used.  Otherwise the
number right of the cursor will be used.

For octal and hexadecimal numbers with leading zeros, the number of
characters in the number remains equal (when possible).  When doing CTRL-A on
"0077" it becomes "0100", CTRL-X on "0x0100" becomes "0x00ff".  Note that
when there are no leading zeros this does not work, so CTRL-X on "0x100"
results in "0xff".  Note that decimal numbers with leading zeros are
impossible, because they are recognized as octal numbers.

The CTRL-A command is very useful in a macro.  Example: How to make a
numbered list.

1. Create the first entry.  The entry should start with a number.
2. qa	     - start recording into buffer 'a'
3. Y	     - yank the entry
4. p	     - put a copy of the entry below the first one
5. CTRL-A    - increment the number
6. q	     - stop recording
7. <count>@a - repeat the yank, put and increment <count> times

*<*
<{motion}		Shift the {motion} lines one 'shiftwidth' leftwards.

*<<*
<<			Shift [count] lines one 'shiftwidth' leftwards.

*v_<*
{Visual}[count]<	Shift the highlighted lines [count] 'shiftwidth'
leftwards (see the chapter on Visual mode
|Visual_mode|).  {not in Vi}

*>*
>{motion}		Shift {motion} lines one 'shiftwidth' rightwards.

*>>*
>>			Shift [count] lines one 'shiftwidth' rightwards.

*v_>*
{Visual}[count]>	Shift the highlighted lines [count] 'shiftwidth'
rightwards (see the chapter on Visual mode
|Visual_mode|).  {not in Vi}

*:<*
:[range]<		Shift [range] lines one 'shiftwidth' left.  Repeat '<'
for shifting multiple 'shiftwidth's.

:[range]< {count}	Shift {count} lines one 'shiftwidth' left, starting
with [range] (default current line |cmdline_ranges|).
Repeat '<' for shifting multiple 'shiftwidth's.

:[range]le[ft] [indent]	left align lines in [range].  Sets the indent in the
lines to [indent] (default 0).  {not in Vi}

*:>*
:[range]>		Shift {count} [range] lines one 'shiftwidth' right.
Repeat '>' for shifting multiple 'shiftwidth's.

:[range]> {count}	Shift {count} lines one 'shiftwidth' right, starting
with [range] (default current line |cmdline_ranges|).
Repeat '>' for shifting multiple 'shiftwidth's.

The ">" and "<" commands are handy for changing the indent within programs.
The size of the white space which is inserted or deleted can be set with the
'shiftwidth' option.  Normally the 'shiftwidth' option is 8, but you can set it
to, say, 3 to make smaller indents.  The shift leftwards stops when there is no
indent.  The shift right does not do anything with empty lines.

If the 'shiftround' option is on, the indent is rounded to a multiple of
'shiftwidth'.

If the 'smartindent' option is on, or 'cindent' is on and 'cinkeys' contains
'#', lines starting with '#' will not be shifted right (they are supposed to
be C preprocessor lines that must stay in column 1).

When the 'expandtab' option is off (this is the default) <Tab>s are used as
much as possible to make the indent.  You can use ">><<" to replace an indent
made out of spaces with the same indent made out of <Tab>s (and a few
spaces if necessary).  If the 'expandtab' option is on, only spaces are
used.  Then you can use ">><<" to replace <Tab>s in the indent by spaces (or
use ":retab!").

To move a line several 'shiftwidth's use the Visual mode or the ":"
commands.  For example:
Vjj4>		move three lines 4 indents to the right
:<<<		move current line 3 indents to the left
:>> 5		move 5 lines 2 indents to the right
:5>>		move line 5 2 indents to the right

11.3 Complex changes					*complex_change*

*!*
!{motion}{filter}	Filter {motion} text through the external program
{filter}.

*!!*
!!{filter}		Filter [count] lines through the external program
{filter}.

*v_!*
{Visual}!{filter}	Filter the highlighted lines through the external
program {filter} (see the chapter on Visual mode
|Visual_mode|).  {not in Vi}

:{range}![!]{filter} [!][arg]				*:range!*
Filter {range} lines through the external program
{filter}.  The optional bangs are replaced with the
latest given command.  The optional [arg] is
appended.  The output of the filter command is
temporaryly saved in a file and then read into the
buffer.  The 'shellredir' option is used to write the
output of the filter in the temporary file.

*=*
={motion}		Filter {motion} lines through the external program
given with the 'equalprg' option.  When the 'equalprg'
option is empty (this is the default), use the
internal formatting function to set the indent of each
line |C_indenting|.

*==*
==			Filter [count] lines through the external program
given with the 'equalprg' option.  When the 'equalprg'
option is empty (this is the default), use the
internal formatting function |C_indenting|.

*v_=*
{Visual}=		Filter the highlighted lines through the external
program given with the 'equalprg' option.  When the
'equalprg' option is empty (this is the default),
use the internal formatting function |C_indenting|.
(see the chapter on Visual mode |Visual_mode|).  {not
in Vi}

A filter is a program that accepts text at standard input, changes it in some
way, and sends it to standard output.  The commands above can be used to send
some text through a filter.  An example of a filter is "sort", which sorts
lines alphabetically.  The "indent" program is used to pretty indent C programs
(you need a version of indent that works like a filter, not all versions do
that).  The shell, given with the 'shell' option, is used to execute the
command (See also the 'shelltype' option).  The filter commands can be redone
with ".".  There cannot be a comment (with '"') after the ":!" command.

*:s* *:substitute*
:[range]s[ubstitute]/{pattern}/{string}/[g][c][r][p] [count]
For each line in [range] replace {pattern} with
{string}.  See below for the flags.

:[range]s[ubstitute] [g][c][r] [count]
:[range]&[g][c][r] [count]			*:&*
Repeat last :substitute with same search pattern and
substitute string.  The flags may be different (see
below).

:[range]~[g][c][r] [count]			*:~*
Repeat last substitute with same substitute string
but with last used search pattern.  This is like
"&r".  See explanation for [r] below.

*&*
&			Synonym for ":s//~/" (repeat last substitute).

The arguments that can be given to the substitute commands:
[g]	All occurrences in the line are replaced.  Otherwise only the first
occurrence in the line is replaced.  If the 'edcompatible' option is
on this flag is remembered and toggled each time it is used.  It is
reset when a new search pattern is given.  If the 'gdefault' option
is on, this flag is default on, give the [g] to switch it off.
[c]	Each substitute has to be confirmed.  The cursor is positioned on the
matching string.  You can type:				*:s_c*
'y'	    to substitute this match
'n'	    to skip this match
<Esc>   to skip this match
'a'	    to substitute this and all remaining matches {not in Vi}
'q'	    to quit substituting {not in Vi}
CTRL-E  to scroll the screen up {not in Vi}
CTRL-Y  to scroll the screen down {not in Vi}.
If the 'edcompatible' option is on the [c] flag is remembered and
toggled each time it is used.  It is reset when a new search pattern
is given.
[r]	When the search pattern is empty use the previously used search
pattern instead of the search pattern from the last substitute or
":global".  If the last command that did a search was a substitute or
":global" there is no effect.  If the last command was a search
command, like "/", the pattern from that command is used.
[p]	Print the line containing the last substitute.
[count] That many lines are are searched, starting with the last line number
in [range] (default current line |cmdline_ranges|).

If the {pattern} for the substitute command is empty, the pattern from the
last substitute or ":global" command is used.  With the [r] flag the pattern
from the last substitute, ":global" or search command is used.

For compatibility with Vi these two execptions are allowed:
"\/{string}/" and "\?{string}?" do the same as "//{string}/r".
"\&{string}&" does the same as "//{string}/".

Instead of the '/' which surrounds the pattern and replacement string, you
can use any other character, but not an alphanumeric character, '"' or '|'
or '#'.  This is useful if you want to include a '/' in the search pattern or
replacement string.  Example: ":s+/+//+"

For the definition of a pattern see 6.6, "Pattern searches" |search_pattern|.

Some characters in {string} have a special meaning:

magic	nomagic	  action
&	  \&	  replaced with the whole matched pattern
\&	   &	  replaced with &
\0	  replaced with the whole matched pattern
\1	  replaced with the matched pattern in the first pair of ()
\2	  replaced with the matched pattern in the second pair of ()
..	  ..
\9	  replaced with the matched pattern in the ninth pair of ()
~	  \~	  replaced with the {string} of the previous substitute
\~	   ~	  replaced with ~
\u	  next character made uppercase
\U	  following characters made uppercase
\l	  next character made lowercase
\L	  following characters made lowercase
\e	  end of /u, /U, /l and /L (NOTE: not <Esc>!)
\E	  end of /u, /U, /l and /L
<CR>	  split line in two at this point
\r	  idem
\n	  <NL>
\b	  <BS>
\t	  <Tab>
CTRL-V <CR>	  insert a carriage-return (CTRL-M)

Examples:
:s/a\|b/xxx\0xxx/g	      modifies "a b"	  in "xxxaxxx xxxbxxx"
:s/$$[abc]$$$$[efg]$$/\2\1/g  modifies "af fa bg" in "fa fa gb"
:s/abcde/abc^Mde/	      modifies "abcde"	  in "abc", "de" (two lines)
:s//^V^M/ modifies "abcde" in "abcde^M" Note: To insert a ^M you have to type CTRL-V <CR>. To insert a ^V you have to type CTRL-V CTRL-V. So to insert the ^V^M in the last example you have to type CTRL-V CTRL-V CTRL-V <CR>. Because CTRL-V <CR> inserts a <CR>, it is impossible to insert a CTRL-V just in front of a line break. You will have to split it up in two parts: :s/foo/^Vxxxx/ :s/xxxx/^M/ When using parentheses in combination with '|', like in $$[ab]$$\|$$[cd]$$, either the first or second pattern in parentheses did not match, so either \1 or \2 is empty. Example: :s/$$[ab]$$\|$$[cd]$$/\1x/g modifies "a b c d" in "ax bx x x" *:ret* *:retab* :[range]ret[ab][!] [new_tabstop] All sequences of white-space containing a tab are replaced with new strings of white-space using the new tabstop value given. If no new tabstop size is given, the current value of 'tabstop' is used. With !, strings of normal spaces will also be replace with tabs where appropriate. With 'expandtab' on, all tabs will be replaced with the appropriate number of spaces. This command sets 'tabstop' to the new value given, and if performed on the whole file, which is default, should not make any visible change. Careful: In a C program a <Tab> inside a string will also be affected. Use "\t" to avoid this (that's a good habit anyway). {not in Vi} 11.4 Formatting text *formatting* :[range]ce[nter] [width] *:ce* *:center* Center lines in [range] between [width] columns (default 'textwidth' or 80 when 'textwidth' is 0). {not in Vi} :[range]ri[ght] [width] *:ri* *:right* right align lines in [range] at [width] columns (default 'textwidth' or 80 when 'textwidth' is 0). {not in Vi} *:le* *:left* :[range]le[ft] [indent] left align lines in [range]. Sets the indent in the lines to [indent] (default 0). {not in Vi} gq{motion} *Q* *gq* Q{motion} Format the lines that were moved over. The length of each line will be restricted to the width given with the 'textwidth' option. See below. If the 'textwidth' option is 0, the width of the screen is used (with a maximum of 79). {not in Vi} NOTE: The "Q" command is used in Vi to go to Ex mode. In a future version of Vim this will be made compatible. Use "gq" for formatting now, to avoid problems when upgrading to a newer version of Vim. {Visual}gq *v_Q* *v_gq* {Visual}Q Format the highlighted text. (see the chapter on Visual mode |Visual_mode|). {not in Vi} Example: To format the current paragraph use "gqp". After the "gq" command the cursor is left in the line where the motion command would take the cursor. This allows for the formatting to be repeated with ".". This works fine with "gqj" (format current and next line) and "gq}" (format until end of paragraph). Note: When 'formatprg' is set, the cursor is left on the first formatted line (like when using a filter command). If the 'autoindent' option is on, the indent of the first line is used for the following lines. Empty lines are left unchanged (but lines with spaces or tabs are!). The 'formatprg' option can be set to the name of an external program, which will be used instead of the internal function. The 'textwidth' and other options will not be used then. *format_comments* Comments can be formatted in a special way. A comment is recognized by a specific string at the start of the line (ignoring white space). Three types of comments can be used: - Repeating the comment string at the start of each line. An example is the type of comment used in shell scripts, starting with "#". - Only the first line has the comment string, following lines don't. An example is this list with dashes. - Three-piece comments, that have a start string, an end string and optional lines in between. The strings for the start, middle and end are different. An example is the C-style comment: /* * this is a C comment */ The 'comments' option can be set to a comma separated list of parts. Each part defines a type of comment that is recognized. A part consists of: {flags}:{string} {string} is the literal text that must appear. {flags}: n Nested comment. Nesting with mixed parts is allowed. If 'comments' is "n:),n:>" a line starting with "> ) >" is accepted as comment. b Blank (<Space>, <Tab> or end-of-line) required after {string}. f First line has comment only, will not be repeated on next line, but indent is kept (for bullet-lists). s Start of three-piece comment m Middle of a three-piece comment e End of a three-piece comment l Left adjust middle with start or end (default). Only recognized when used together with 's' or 'e'. r Right adjust middle with start or end. Only recognized when used together with 's' or 'e'. When neither 'f', 's', 'm' or 'e' is given, a repeated comment string is assumed. It is possible to have an empty flags field. Blank space in the text before and after the {string} is also included. The {string} in the 'comments' option should not include leading or trailing blanks (although it is allowed, in which case they are required). When one comment leader is part of another, put it after that one. For example, to include both "-" and "->", use :set comments=f:->,f:- A three-piece comment must always be given as start-middle-end, with no other parts in between. An example of a three-piece comment is "sr:/*,mb:*,el:*/" for C-comments. To avoid recognizing "*ptr" the 'b' flag is included for the middle. For three-piece comments the text after the start and middle is checked for the appearance of the end. If it is, the comment will not continue below. The middle part must be present, because otherwise Vim can't recognize the middle lines. Examples: "b:*" Includes lines starting with "*", but not if the "*" is followed by a non-blank. This avoids a pointer dereference like "*str" to be recognized as a comment. "n:>" Includes a line starting with ">", ">>", ">>>", etc. "fb:-" Format a list that starts with "- ". By default, "b:#" is included. This means that a line that starts with "#include" is not recognized as a comment line. But a line that starts with "# define" is recognized. In C code this is good, because somewhere after this a "#endif" is needed. *fo_table* The 'formatoptions' option can be set to influence the way how comments are formatted. It is a string option, that may contain any of these letters. The default is "tcq". Commas can be added for readability. letter meaning when present in 'formatoptions' t Do text autowrapping using textwidth c Do comment autowrapping using textwidth, inserting the current comment leader automatically. r Automatically insert the current comment leader after hitting <return> in insert mode. o Automatically insert the current comment leader after hitting 'o' or 'O' in Normal mode. q Allow formatting of comments with "gq" (or "Q", which is obsolete). Note that blank lines, or lines containing only the comment leader will be left untouched. A new paragraph starts after such a line, or when the comment leader changes. 2 When formatting text the indent of the second line of a paragraph is used for the rest of the paragraph. This allows for paragraphs with a different indent for the first line. v Vi-compatible auto wrapping in insert mode: Only break a line at a blank that has been entered during the current insert command. (Note: this is not 100% Vi compatible, Vi has some "unexpected features" or bugs in this area. It uses the screen column instead of the line column) b Like 'v', but only auto wrap if a blank has been entered at or before the wrap margin. If the line was longer than 'textwidth' when the insert started, or no blank was entered in the current insert before reaching 'textwidth', there is no auto wrapping. l Long lines are not broken in insert mode: When a line was longer than 'textwidth' when the insert command started it is not automatically formatted. With 't' and 'c' you can decide when auto-wrapping is done: value action "" no automatic formatting, "gq" can be used for manual formatting "t" automatic formatting of text, not for comments "c" automatic formatting for comments, not for text (good for C code) "tc" automatic formatting for text and comments Note that when 'textwidth' is 0, no formatting is done anyway (but the comment leader is inserted). Note that when 'paste' is on, no formatting is done at all. Note that 'textwidth' can be non-zero even though auto-wrapping never occurs. This is good because it can be used for formatting only in this case (with "gq"). If "/*", "*" and/or "*/" are in the 'comments' variable, then Vim has some built in stuff to treat these types of comments a bit more cleverly. Opening a new line before or after "/*" or "*/" (with 'r' or 'o' present in 'formatoptions') gives the correct start of the line automatically. The same happens with formatting and auto-wrapping. Opening a line after a line starting with "/*" or "*" and containing "*/", will cause no comment leader to be inserted, and the indent of the new line is taken from the line containing the start of the comment. E.g.: /* * Your typical comment. */ The indent on this line is the same as the start of the above comment. All this should be really cool, especially in conjunction with the new :autocmd command to prepare different settings for different types of file. Some examples: for C code: fo="croq" (only format comments) for Mail/news: fo="tcrq" (format all, don't start comment with "o" command) 11.5 Indenting C programs *C_indenting* C programs can be automatically indented. Only the indent is set, no other formatting is done. To format comments see |format_comments|. There are in fact three methods that can be used. 'autoindent' Just takes the indent from the previous line. 'smartindent' Is like 'autoindent' but also recognizes some C syntax to increase/reduce the indent where appropriate. 'cindent' Works more clever than the other two and can be configured to different indenting styles. The rest of this section is about the 'cindent' option. Note that the indenting done with 'cindent' does not work for 100%. Vim is not a C compiler, not all syntax is recognized. Four options are used for C program indenting: 'cindent' When on automatic C program indenting is enabled. 'cinkeys' Keys that trigger reindenting in insert mode. 'cinoptions' For setting your preferred indent style. 'cinwords' Defines keywords that start an extra indent in the next line. If 'lisp' is not on and 'equalprg' is empty, the "=" operator indents using this algorithm rather than calling an external program. See |autocommand| for how to automatically set the 'cindent' option for C code files and reset it for others. *'cinkeys'* *'cink'* The 'cinkeys' option can be set to a string that says when to do indenting. The default is "0{,0},:,0#,!^F,o,O,e". This means that indenting is done when: "0{" typing '{' as the first character in a line "0}" typing '}' as the first character in a line ":" typing ':' anywhere "0#" typing '#' as the first character in a line "!^F" typing CTRL-F, which is not inserted "o" typing a <CR> anywhere and for the "o" command (not in insert mode!) "O" for the "O" command (not in insert mode!) "e" typing the second 'e' for an "else" at the start of a line Characters that can be prepended: '!' When the key is preceded with a '!' the key will not be inserted but will just cause the current line to be reindented. This allows you to set a command key for reindenting the current line. By default CTRL-F is used for this. Careful with CTRL-I, you might think that it is a nice command for Indenting, but it is the same as a <Tab>. '*' When the key is preceded with a '*' the reindenting will be done before inserting the key. If you use "*<Return>" this means that the current line will be reindented, before opening a new line. When the key is not preceded with a '!' or '*' the reindenting will be done after inserting the key. So ';' will set the indentation of the line including the ';'. '0' When a zero is used before the key (but after '!' or '*') it will only trigger reindenting if the key is the first character typed in the line. Special key names: <> Angle brackets mean spelled-out names of keys. For example: "<Up>", "<Ins>". '^' Letters preceded by a caret (^) are control characters. For example: "^F" is CTRL-F. 'o' Means to reindent a line for the "o" command and whenever a new line is opened below the current one. This includes hitting <Return> in insert mode. 'O' Means to reindent a line for the "O" command. 'e' Means to reindent a line that starts with "else" when an 'e' is inserted. If you really want to reindent when you type 'o', 'O', 'e', '0', '<', '>', '*' or '!', use "<o>", "<O>", "<e>", "<0>", "<<>", "<>>", "<*>" or "<!>", respectively, for those keys. For an emacs-style indent mode, where lines aren't indented every time you press Return but only if you press Tab, I suggest: :set cinkeys=0{,0},:,0#,!<Tab>,!^F Note: When the indent of the current line was changed manually, cindenting won't be done for any key. This is to avoid re-indenting after you changed the indent by typing <BS>, <Tab> or <Space> in the indent, or used CTRL-T or CTRL-D. How the indenting is done can be set with 'cinoptions'. In the list below, "N" represents a number of your choice. It can be negative. When there is an 's' after the number, it is multiplied with 'shiftwidth'. "1s" is 'shiftwidth', "2s" is two times 'shiftwidth', etc. A decimal point is allowed too: "-0.5s" is minus half a 'shiftwidth'. The examples given below assume a 'shiftwidth' of 4. >N Amount added for "normal" indent. Used after a line that should increase the indent (lines starting with "if", an opening brace, etc.). (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino=>2 cino=>2s if (cond) if (cond) if (cond) { { { foo; foo; foo; } } } eN Add N to the prevailing indent inside a set of braces if the opening brace at the End of the line (more precise: is not the first character in a line). This is useful if you want a different indent when the '{' is at the start of the line from when '{' is at the end of the line. (default 0). cino= cino=e2 cino=e-2 if (cond) { if (cond) { if (cond) { foo; foo; foo; } } } else else else { { { bar; bar; bar; } } } nN Add N to the prevailing indent for a statement after an "if", "while", etc., if it is Not inside a set of braces. This is useful if you want a different indent when there is no '{' before the statement from when there is a '{' before it. (default 0). cino= cino=n2 cino=n-2 if (cond) if (cond) if (cond) foo; foo; foo; else else else { { { bar; bar; bar; } } } fN The First opening brace of a function or other block is placed in column N. Only for an opening brace that is not inside other braces and is at the start of the line. What comes after the brace is put relative to this brace. (default 0). cino= cino=f.5s cino=f1s func() func() func() { { { int foo; int foo; int foo; {N Opening braces are placed N characters from the prevailing indent. Only for opening braces that are inside other braces. (default 0). cino= cino={.5s cino={1s if (cond) if (cond) if (cond) { { { foo; foo; foo; }N Closing braces are placed N characters from the matching opening brace. (default 0). cino= cino={2,}-0.5s cino=}2 if (cond) if (cond) if (cond) { { { foo; foo; foo; } } } ^N Add N to the prevailing indent inside a set of braces if the opening brace is in column 0. This is used to have a different indent for whole of a function (some may like to set it to a negative number). (default 0). cino= cino=^-2 cino=^-s func() func() func() { { { if (cond) if (cond) if (cond) { { { a = b; a = b; a = b; } } } } } } :N Case labels are placed N characters from the indent of the switch(). (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino=:0 switch (x) switch(x) { { case 1: case 1: a = b; a = b; default: default: } } =N Statements after a case label are placed N characters from the indent of the label. (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino==10 case 11: case 11: a = a + 1; a = a + 1; b = b + 1; pN Parameter declarations for K&R-style function declarations will be indented N characters from the margin. (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino=p0 cino=p2s func(a, b) func(a, b) func(a, b) int a; int a; int a; char b; char b; char b; tN Type for a function declaration will be indented N characters from the margin. (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino=t0 cino=t7 int int int func() func() func() +N Continuation lines (lines that spill onto two) are indented N additional characters. (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino=+10 a = b + 9 * a = b + 9 * c; c; cN Comment lines after the comment opener, when there is no other text to line up with, are indented N characters from the comment opener. (default 3). See also |format_comments|. cino= cino=c5 /* /* text. text. */ */ (N When in unclosed parentheses, indent N characters from the line with the unclosed parentheses. When N is 0 or the line starts with '(' line up with the unclosed parentheses. (default 'shiftwidth' * 2). cino= cino=(0 if (c1 && (c2 || if (c1 && (c2 || c3)) c3)) foo; foo; if (c1 && if (c1 && (c2 || c3) (c2 || c3) } } )N Unclosed parentheses will be searched for at most N lines away. This is just to limit the time needed to search for parentheses. (default 20 lines). *N Unclosed comments will be searched for at most N lines away. This is just to limit the time needed to search for the start of a comment. (default 30 lines). The defaults, spelled out in full, would be cinoptions=>s,e0,n0,f0,{0,}0,^0,:s,=s,ps,ts,+s,(2s,)20,*30 Lines are put in column 1 if: - It starts with '#' (preprocessor directives), if 'cinkeys' contains '#'. - It starts with a label (a keyword followed by ':', other than "case" and "default"). - Any combination of indentations causes the line to have less than 0 indentation. 12. Copying and moving text *copy_move* =========================== *quote* "<a-zA-Z0-9.%:-"> Use register <a-zA-Z0-9.%:-"> for next delete, yank or put (use uppercase character to append with delete and yank) (<.%:> only work with put). *:reg* *:registers* :reg[isters] Display the contents of all numbered and named registers. {not in Vi} :reg[isters] {arg} Display the contents of the numbered and named registers that are mentioned in {arg}. For example: :dis 1a to display registers '1' and 'a'. Spaces are allowed in {arg}. {not in Vi} *:di* *:display* :di[splay] [arg] Same as :registers. {not in Vi} *y* ["x]y{motion} Yank {motion} text [into register x]. *yy* ["x]yy Yank [count] lines [into register x] (linewise). *Y* ["x]Y yank [count] lines [into register x] (synonym for yy, linewise). If you like "Y" to work from the cursor to the end of line (which is more logical, but not Vi-compatible) use ":map Y y".

*v_y*
{Visual}["x]y		Yank the highlighed text [into register x] (see the
chapter on Visual mode |Visual_mode|).  {not in Vi}

*v_Y*
{Visual}["x]Y		Yank the highlighted lines [into register x] (see the
chapter on Visual mode |Visual_mode|).  {not in Vi}

*:y* *:yank*
:[range]y[ank] [x]	Yank [range] lines [into register x].

:[range]y[ank] [x] {count}
Yank {count} lines, starting with last line number
in [range] (default: current line |cmdline_ranges|),
[into register x].

*p*
["x]p			Put the text [from register x] after the cursor
[count] times.  {Vi: no count}

["x]P		    or					*P* *<MiddleMouse>*
["x]<MiddleMouse>	Put the text [from register x] before the cursor
[count] times.  Using the mouse only works when
'mouse' contains 'n' or 'a'.  {Vi: no count}

*:pu* *:put*
:[line]pu[t] [x]	Put the text [from register x] after [line] (default
current line).

:[line]pu[t]! [x]	Put the text [from register x] before [line] (default
current line).

["x]]p		    or					*]p* *]<MiddleMouse>*
["x]]<MiddleMouse>  	Like "p", but adjust the indent to the current line.
Using the mouse only works when 'mouse' contains 'n'
or 'a'.  {not in Vi}

["x][P		    or					*[P*
["x]]P		    or					*]P*
["x][p		    or					*[p* *[<MiddleMouse>*
["x][<MiddleMouse>	Like "P", but adjust the indent to the current line.
Using the mouse only works when 'mouse' contains 'n'
or 'a'.  {not in Vi}

These commands can be used to copy text from one place to another.  This is
done by first getting the text into a register with a yank, delete or change
command.  The register can then be inserted with a put command.  All registers
are kept when changing files.  Thus you can also use this to move text from
one file to another (the CTRL-^ command is a quick way to toggle between two
files).

The put commands can be repeated with "." (except for :put) and undone.  If
the command that was used to get the text into the register was linewise, the
text will be inserted below ("p") or above ("P") the line where the cursor
is.  Otherwise the text will be inserted after ("p") or before ("P") the
cursor.  With the ":put" command the text will always be inserted in the next
line.  You can exchange two characters with the command sequence "xp".  You
can exchange two lines with the command sequence "ddp".  You can exchange
two words with the command sequence "deep" (start with the cursor in the
blank space before the first word).  The "']" or "]" command can be used
after the put command to move the cursor to the end of the inserted text,
"'[" or "[" to move the cursor to the start.

If the command that was used to get the text into the register used
blockwise Visual mode, the block of text will be inserted before ("P") or
after ("p") the cursor column, in the current and next lines.  Vim will make
the whole block of text start in the same column.  Thus the inserted text
looks the same as when it was yanked or deleted.  Some <Tab> characters may
be replaced with spaces to make this happen.  However, if the width of the
block is not a multiple of a <Tab> width and the text after the inserted
block contains <Tab>s, that text may be misaligned.

Rationale:	In Vi the "y" command followed by a backwards motion would
sometimes not move the cursor to the first yanked character,
because redisplaying was skipped.  In Vim it always moves to
the first character, like specified by Posix.

There are five types of registers:			*registers*
- The unnamed register ""			*quote_quote* *quotequote*
- 10 numbered registers "0 to "9		*quote_number* *quote0*
- The small delete register "-			*quote_-* *quote-*
- 26 named registers "a to "z or "A to "Z	*quote_alpha* *quotea*
- three read-only registers ":, ". and "%

The unnamed register is the register where all text deleted with
the "d", "c", "s", "x" commands or copied with the yank "y" command is
placed, regardless of whether or not a specific register was used (e.g.
"xdd).  The contents of this register are used by any put command (p or P)
which does not specify a register.  Additionally it can be accessed by the
name '"'.  This means you have to type two double quotes.  {Vi: register
contents lost when changing files, no '"'}
The numbered registers are filled with yank and delete commands.
Numbered register 0 is filled with the last yank command, unless another
register was specified with ["x].  Numbered register 1 is filled with the text
that was deleted by each delete or change command, unless another register was
specified or the text is less than one line (text deleted with "x" or "dw"
will be put in the small delete register).  The contents of register 1 are put
in 2, 2 in 3, and so forth.  The contents of register 9 are lost.  {Vi:
numbered register contents are lost when changing files; register 0 does not
exist}
The small delete register is filled with delete commands that delete
less than one line, except when a register was specified with ["x].
The named registers are only filled when you say so.  They are named
'a' to 'z' normally.  If you use an uppercase letter, the same registers as
with the lower case letter is used, but the text is appended to the previous
register contents.  With a lower case letter the previous contents are lost.
The read-only registers are '%', ':' and '.'.  They can only be used
with the commands "p", "P", ":put" and with CTRL-R.
*quote_.* *quote.*
".	Contains the last inserted text (the same as what is inserted
with the insert mode commands CTRL-A and CTRL-@).  Note: this
doesn't work with CTRL-R on the command line.  It works a bit
differently, like inserting the text instead of putting it
('textwidth' and other options affect what is inserted).
*quote_%* *quote%*
"%	Contains the name of the current file.
*quote_:* *quote:*
":	Contains the last command line.  It can be used with "@:",
this repeats the last command line.

If you use a put command without specifying a register, the register that
was last written to is used (this is also the contents of the unnamed
register).  If you are confused, use the ":dis" command to find out what will
be put (all named and numbered registers are displayed; the unnamed register
is labelled '"').

The next three commands always work on whole lines.

:[range]co[py] {address}				*:co* *:copy*
Copy the lines given by [range] to below the line

*:t*
:t			Synonym for copy.

:[range]m[ove] {address}				*:m* *:move*
Move the lines given by [range] to below the line

13. Visual mode						*Visual_mode*
===============

Visual mode is a flexible and easy way to select a piece of text for an
operator.  It is the only way to select a block of text.  {Vi has no Visual
mode, the name "visual" is used for Normal mode, to distinguish it from Ex
mode}

*v*
v			start Visual mode per character.  {not in Vi}

*V*
V			start Visual mode linewise.  {not in Vi}

*CTRL-V*
CTRL-V			start Visual mode blockwise.  {not in Vi}

*v_o*
o			go to Other end of highlighted text: The current
cursor position becomes the start of the highlighted
text and the cursor is moved to the Other end of the
highlighted text.  {not in Vi}

*gv* *v_gv*
gv			Start Visual mode with the same area as the previous
area and the same mode.  In Visual mode the current and
the previous Visual area are exchanged.  {not in Vi}

*<LeftMouse>*
<LeftMouse>		Set the current cursor position.  If Visual mode is
active it is stopped.  Only when 'mouse' option is
contains 'n' or 'a'.  If the position is within 'so'
lines from the last line on the screen the text is
scrolled up.  If the position is within 'so' lines from
the first line on the screen the text is scrolled
down.  {not in Vi}

*<RightMouse>*
<RightMouse>		Start Visual mode if it is not active.  The text from
the cursor position to the position of the click is
highlighted.  If Visual mode was already active move
the start or end of the highlighted text, which ever
is closest, to the position of the click.  Only when
'mouse' option contains 'n' or 'a'.  {not in Vi}

*<LeftRelease>*
<LeftRelease>		This works like a <LeftMouse>, if it is not a
the same position as <LeftMouse>.  In an xterm you
won't see the selected area until the button is
released.  Only when 'mouse' option contains 'n' or
'a'.  {not in Vi}

To apply an operator on a piece of text:
1. mark the start of the text with "v", "V" or CTRL-V
The character under the cursor will be used as the start.
2. move to the end of the text
The text from the start of the Visual mode up to and
including the character under the cursor is highlighted.
3. hit an operator
The highlighted characters will be operated upon.

The 'highlight' option can be used to set the display mode to use for
highlighting in Visual mode.

The highlighted text includes the character under the cursor.  On terminals
where it is possible to make the cursor invisible the cursor position is
also highlighted.  On terminals where this is not possible the cursor is
displayed normally.  If your cursor cannot be made invisible and you want Vim
to highlight the character under the cursor anyway, you could set the 't_cv'
and 't_ci' options to something harmless, for example:
:set t_cv=^[^[ t_ci=^[^[

With "v" the text before the start position and after the end position will
not be highlighted.  However, All uppercase and non-alpha operators, except
"~", will work on whole lines anyway.  See the list of operators below.

*visual_block*
With CTRL-V (blockwise Visual mode) the highlighted text will be a rectangle
between start position and the cursor.  However, some operators work on whole
lines anyway (see the list below).  The change and substitute operators will
delete the highlighted text and then start insertion at the top left
position.

When the "$" command is used with blockwise Visual mode, the right end of the highlighted text will be determined by the longest highlighted line. This stops when a motion command is used that does not move straight up or down. If you use <Esc>, click the left mouse button or use any command that does a jump to another buffer while in Visual mode, the highlighting stops and no text is affected. Also when you hit "v" in characterwise Visual mode, "CTRL-V" in blockwise Visual mode or "V" in linewise Visual mode. If you hit CTRL-Z the highlighting stops and the editor is suspended or a new shell is started |CTRL-Z|. new mode after typing: *v_v* *v_CTRL-V* *v_V* old mode "v" "CTRL-V" "V" Normal Visual blockwise Visual linewise Visual Visual Normal blockwise Visual linewise Visual blockwise Visual Visual Normal linewise Visual linewise Visual Visual blockwise Visual Normal For moving the end of the block many commands can be used, but you cannot use Ex commands, commands that make changes or abandon the file. Commands (starting with) ".pPiIaAO&", CTRL-^, "Z", CTRL-], CTRL-T, CTRL-R, CTRL-I and CTRL-O cause a beep and Visual mode continues. If Visual mode is not active and the "v", "V" or CTRL-V is preceded with a count, the size of the previously highlighted area is used for a start. You can then move the end of the highlighted area and give an operator. The type of the old area is used (character, line or blockwise). - Linewise Visual mode: The number of lines is multiplied with the count. - Blockwise Visual mode: The number of lines and columns is multiplied with the count. - Normal Visual mode within one line: The number of characters is multiplied with the count. - Normal Visual mode with several lines: The number of lines is multiplied with the count, in the last line the same number of characters is used as in the last line in the previously highlighted area. The start of the text is the Cursor position. If the "$" command was used as
one of the last commands to extend the highlighted text, the area will be
extended to the rightmost column of the longest line.

If you want to highlight exactly the same area as the last time, you can use
"gv" |gv| |v_gv|.

The operators that can be used are:
~	switch case					|v_tilde|
d	delete						|v_d|
c	change						|v_c|
y	yank						|v_y|
>	shift right (1)(*)				|v_>|
<	shift left (1)(*)				|v_<|
!	filter through external command (1)		|v_!|
=	filter through 'equalprg' option command (1)	|v_=|
Q	format lines to 'textwidth' length (1)(obsolete)|v_Q|
gq	format lines to 'textwidth' length (1)		|v_gq|

The objects that can be used are:
a	word						|v_a|
A	WORD (see |WORD|)				|v_A|
s	sentence					|v_s|
p	paragraph					|v_p|
P	block						|v_P|

Additionally the following commands can be used:
:	start ex command for highlighted lines (1)	|v_:|
r	change						|v_r|
C	change (2)					|v_C|
R	change (2)					|v_R|
x	delete						|v_x|
D	delete (2)					|v_D|
X	delete (2)					|v_X|
Y	yank (2)					|v_Y|
J	join (1)					|v_J|
U	make uppercase					|v_U|
u	make lowercase					|v_u|
^]	find tag					|v_CTRL-]|

(1): always whole lines, see |:visual_example|
(2): whole lines when not using CTRL-V
(*): in a future a blockwise shift will move the block only, not whole
lines.

Note that the ":vmap" command can be used to specifically map keys in Visual
mode.

If you want to give a register name using the """ command, do this just before
typing the operator character: "v{move around}"xd".

If you want to give a count to the command, do this just before typing the
operator character: "v{move around}3>" (move lines 3 indents to the right).

*repeat_Visual*
When repeating a Visual mode operator, the operator will be applied to the
same amount of text as the last time:
- Linewise Visual mode: The same number of lines.
- Blockwise Visual mode: The same number of lines and columns.
- Normal Visual mode within one line: The same number of characters.
- Normal Visual mode with several lines: The same number of lines, in the
last line the same number of characters as in the last line the last time.
The start of the text is the Cursor position.  If the "$" command was used as one of the last commands to extend the highlighted text, the repeating will be applied up to the rightmost column of the longest line. *:visual_example* Currently the ":" command works on whole lines only. When you select part of a line, doing something like ":!date" will replace the whole line. If you want only part of the line to be replaced you will have to make a mapping for it. In a future release ":" may work on partial lines. Here is an example, to replace the selected text with the output of "date": :vmap _a <Esc>a<CR><Esc>\<i<CR><Esc>!!date<CR>kJJ (In the <> notation |<>|, when typing it you should type it literally; you need to remove the 'B' and '<' flags from 'cpoptions') What this does is: <Esc> stop Visual mode a<CR><Esc> break the line after the Visual area \< jump to the start of the Visual area i<CR><Esc> break the line before the Visual area !!date<CR> filter the Visual text through date kJJ Join the lines again 14. Various commands *various* ==================== *CTRL-L* CTRL-L Clear and redraw the screen. *N<Del>* <Del> When entering a number: Remove the last digit. Note: if you like to use <BS> for this, add this mapping to your .vimrc: :map CTRL-V <BS> CTRL-V <Del> See |:fixdel| if your <Del> key does not do what you want. :as[cii] or *ga* *:as* *:ascii* ga Print the ascii value of the character under the cursor in decimal, hexadecimal and octal. For example, when the cursor is on a 'R': <R> 82, Hex 52, Octal 122 When the character is a non-standard ASCII character, but printable according to the 'isprint' option, the non-printable version is also given. When the character is larger than 127, the <M-x> form is also printed. For example: <~A> <M-^A> 129, Hex 81, Octal 201 <p> <|~> <M-~> 254, Hex fe, Octal 376 (where <p> is a special character) The <Nul> character in a file is stored internally as <NL>, but it will be shown as: <^@> 0, Hex 00, Octal 000 Mnemonic: Get Ascii value. {not in Vi} *:p* *:print* :[range]p[rint] Print [range] lines (default current line). :[range]p[rint] {count} Print {count} lines, starting with [range] (default current line |cmdline_ranges|). *:l* *:list* :[range]l[ist] [count] Same as :print, but display unprintable characters with '^'. *:nu* *:number* :[range]nu[mber] [count] Same as :print, but precede each line with its line number. (See also 'highlight' option). *:#* :[range]# [count] synonym for :number. *:=* := Print the cursor line number. :norm[al][!] {commands} *:norm* *:normal* Execute Normal mode commands {commands}. This makes it possible to execute normal mode commands typed on the command line. {commands} is executed like it is typed. For undo all commands are undone together. If the [!] is given, mappings will not be used. If {commands} does not finish a command, more characters need to be typed. Mostly useful for autocommands. This command cannot be followed by another command, since any '|' is considered part of the command. {not in vi} *:sh* *:shell* :sh[ell] Escape to a shell (name from 'shell' option). *:!cmd* *:!* :!{cmd} Execute {cmd} with the shell. See also the 'shell' and 'shelltype' option. Any '!' in {cmd} is replaced with the previous external command (see also 'cpoptions'). But not when there is a backslash before the '!', then that backslash is removed. Example: ":!ls" followed by ":!echo ! \! \\!" executes "echo ls ! \!". Also see |shell_window|. *:!!* :!! Repeat last ":!{cmd}". *:ve* *:version* :ve[rsion] Print the version number of the editor. If the compiler used understands "__DATE__" the compilation date is mentioned. Otherwise a fixed release-date is shown. The following lines contain information about which options were defined when Vim was compiled. :ve[rsion] {nr} Set the version number to {nr}. Used in .vimrc files. When omitted Vim will give a warning message. If {nr} is higher than the current Vim version this will result in an error message. {not in Vi} :if *:if* *:endif* :endif Every Ex command in between the ":if" and ":endif" is ignored. These two commands are just to allow for future expansions in a backwards compatible way. Nesting is allowed. In Vim version 5 you are expected to be able to do something like :if version >= "5.0" : version-5-specific-command :endif {not in Vi} *K* K Run a program to lookup the keyword under the cursor. The name of the program is given with the 'keywordprg' (kp) option (default is "man"). The keyword is formed of letters, numbers and the characters in 'iskeyword'. The keyword under or right of the cursor is used. The same can be done with the command ":!{program} {keyword}". There is an example of a program to use in the tools directory of Vim. It is called 'ref' and does a simple spelling check. If 'keywordprg' is empty, the ":help" command is used. {not in Vi} *v_K* {Visual}K Like "K", but use the visually highlighted text for the keyword. Only works when the highlighted text is not more than one line. {not in Vi} [N]gs *gs* *:sl* *:sleep* :[N]sl[eep] [N] Do nothing for [N] seconds. Can be interrupted with CTRL-C (CTRL-break on MS-DOS). "gs" stands for "goto sleep". While sleeping the cursor is positioned in the text (if visible). {not in Vi} 15. Repeating commands *repeating* ====================== 15.1 Single repeats *single_repeat* *.* . Repeat last change with count replaced with [count]. Simple changes can be repeated with the "." command. Without a count, the count of the last change is used. If you enter a count, it will replace the last one. If the last change included a specification of a numbered register, the register number will be incremented. See the section on undo and redo for an example how to use this |undo_redo|. Note that when repeating a command that used a Visual selection, the same SIZE of area is used, see |repeat_Visual|. *@:* @: Repeat last command line [count] times. 15.2 Multiple repeats *multi_repeat* *:g* *:global* :[range]g[lobal]/{pattern}/[cmd] Execute the Ex command [cmd] (default ":p") on the lines within [range] where {pattern} matches. :[range]g[lobal]!/{pattern}/[cmd] Execute the Ex command [cmd] (default ":p") on the lines within [range] where {pattern} does NOT match. *:v* *:vglobal* :[range]v[global]/{pattern}/[cmd] Same as :g!. The global commands work by first scanning through the [range] lines and marking each line where a match occurs. In a second scan the [cmd] is executed for each marked line with its line number prepended. If a line is changed or deleted its mark disappears. The default for [range] is the whole buffer (1,$).  Use "CTRL-C" to interrupt the command.  If an error message is
given for a line the global command aborts.

To repeat a non-Ex command, you will have to put the command in a file and
use "source!".  For example:
:g/pat/so! scriptfile
Make sure that the scriptfile ends with a whole command, otherwise Vim will
wait for you to type the rest of the command for each match.  The screen will
not have been updated, so you don't know what you are doing.

The undo/redo command will undo/redo the whole global command at once.
The previous context mark will only be set once (with "''" you go back to
where the cursor was before the global command).

The global command sets both the last used search pattern and the last used
substitute pattern (this is vi compatible).  This makes it easy to globally
replace a string:
:g/pat/s//PAT/g
This replaces all occurences of "pat" with "PAT".  The same can be done with:
:%s/pat/PAT/g
Which is two characters shorter!

15.3 Complex repeats					*complex_repeat*

*q*
q<0-9a-zA-Z">		Record typed characters into register <0-9a-zA-Z">
(uppercase to append).  The 'q' command is disabled
while executing a register.  {Vi: no recording}

q			Stops recording.  (Implementation note: The 'q' that
stops recording is not stored in the register, unless
it was the result of a mapping)  {Vi: no recording}

*@*
@<0-9a-z".>		Execute the contents of register <0-9a-z".> [count]
times.  Note that register '%' (name of the current
file) cannot be used.  See also |@:|.  {Vi: only named
registers}

*@@*
@@			Repeat the previous @<0-9a-z":> [count] times.

*:@*
:[addr]@<0-9a-z">	Execute the contents of register <0-9a-z"> as an Ex
command.  First set cursor at line [addr] (default is
current line).  When the last line in the register does
not have a <CR> it will be added automatically when
the 'e' flag is present in 'cpoptions'.  {Vi: only in
some versions} Future: Will execute the register for
each line in the address range.

:[addr]@:		Repeat last command line [count] times.  First set
cursor at line [addr] (default is current line).
{Vi: only in some versions}

*:@@*
:[addr]@@		Repeat the previous :@<0-9a-z">.  First set cursor at
line [addr] (default is current line).  {Vi: only in
some versions}

*:so* *:source*
:so[urce] {file}	Read Ex commands from {file}.

:so[urce]! {file}	Read Vim commands from {file}.  {not in Vi}

All commands and command sequences can be repeated by putting them in a named
register and then executing it.  There are two ways to get the commands in the
register:
- Use the record command "q".  You type the commands once, and while they are
being executed they are stored in a register.  Easy, because you can see
what you are doing.  If you make a mistake, 'put' the register into the
file, edit the command sequence, and then delete it into the register
again.  You can continue recording by appending to the register (use an
uppercase letter).
- Delete or yank the command sequence into the register.

Often used command sequences can be put under a function key with the ':map'
command.

An alternative is to put the commands in a file, and execute them with the
':source!' command.  Useful for long command sequences.  Can be combined with
the ':map' command to put complicated commands under a function key.

The ':source' command reads Ex commands from a file line by line.  You will
have to type any needed keyboard input.  The ':source!' command reads from a
script file character by character, interpreting each character as if you
typed it.

Example: When you give the ":!ls" command you are asked to "hit return to
continue".  If you ':source' a file with the line "!ls" in it, you will have
to type the return yourself.  But if you ':source!' a file with the line
":!ls" in it, the next characters from that file are read until a <CR> is
found.  You will not have to type <CR> yourself, unless ":!ls" was the last
line in the file.

It is possible to put ':source[!]' commands in the script file, so you can
make a top-down hierarchy of script files.  The ':source' command can be
nested as deep as the number of files that can be opened at one time (about
15).  The ':source!' command can be nested up to 15 levels deep.

In script files terminal-dependent key codes are represented by
terminal-independent two character codes.  This means that they can be used
in the same way on different kinds of terminals.  The first character of a
key code is 0x80 or 128, shown on the screen as "~@".  The second one can be
found in the list |key_notation|.  Any of these codes can also be entered
with CTRL-V followed by the three digit decimal code.  This does NOT work for
the <t_xx> termcap codes, these can only be used in mappings.

*:source_crnl*
MS-DOS, Win32 and OS/2: Files that are read with ":source" normally have
<CR>-<NL> line separators.  These always work.  If you are using a file with
<NL> line separators (for example, a file made on Unix), this will be
recognized if you have 'textauto' on and the first line does not end in a
<CR>.  This fails if the first line has something like ":map <F1> :help^M",
where "^M" is a <CR>.  If the first line ends in a <CR>, but following ones
don't, you will get an error message, because the <CR> from the first lines
will be lost.

16. Undo and redo					*undo_redo*
=================

<Undo>		or					*undo* *<Undo>* *u*
u			Undo [count] changes.  {Vi: only one level}

*:u* *:undo*
:u[ndo]			Undo one change.  {Vi: only one level}

*CTRL-R*
CTRL-R			Redo [count] changes which were undone.  {Vi: redraw
screen}

*:red* *:redo*
:red[o]			Redo one change which was undone.  {Vi: no redo}

*U*
U			Undo all latest changes on one line.  {Vi: while not
moved off of it}

The last changes are remembered.  You can go back in time with the "u"
command.  You can then go forward again with the 'CTRL-R' command.  If you
make a new change after the "u" command, the 'CTRL-R' will not be possible
anymore.  The number of changes that are remembered is set with the
'undolevels' option.  If it is zero, the old fashioned Vi undo is present:
one level of undo and undo undoes itself.  If it is negative no undo is
possible.  Use this if you are running out of memory.

The "U" command is treated by undo/redo just like any other command.  Thus a
"u" command undos a "U" command and a 'CTRL-R' command redoes it again.  When
mixing "U", "u" and 'CTRL-R' you will notice that the "U" command will
restore the situation of a line to before the previous "U" command.  This may
be confusing.  Try it out to get used to it.

When all changes have been undone the buffer is not considered to be changed.
Vim can then be exit with ":q" instead of ":q!".  {this is not in Vi}

The numbered registers can also be used for undoing deletes.  Each time you
delete text, it is put into register "1.  The contents of register "1 are
shifted to "2, etc.  The contents of register "9 are lost.  You can now get
back the most recent deleted text with the put command: '"1P'.  (also, if the
deleted text was the result of the last delete or copy operation, 'P' or 'p'
also works as this puts the contents of the unnamed register).  You can get
back the text of three deletes ago with '"3P'.

If you want to get back more than one part of deleted text, you can use a
special feature of the repeat command ".".  It will increase the number of the
register used.  So if you first do ""1P", the following "." will result in a
'"2P'.  Repeating this will result in all numbered registers being inserted.

Example:	If you deleted text with 'dd....' it can be restored with
'"1P....'.

If you don't know in which register the deleted text is, you can use the
:display command.  An alternative is to try the first register with '"1P', and
if it is not what you want do 'u.'.  This will remove the contents of the
first put, and repeat the put command for the second register.  Repeat the
'u.' until you got what you want.

17. Key mapping						*key_mapping*
===============

There are commands to enter new mappings, remove mappings and list mappings:

:map    {lhs} {rhs}					*:map*
:nm[ap] {lhs} {rhs}					*:nm* *:nmap*
:vm[ap] {lhs} {rhs}					*:vm* *:vmap*
:map!   {lhs} {rhs}					*:map!*
:im[ap] {lhs} {rhs}					*:im* *:imap*
:cm[ap] {lhs} {rhs}					*:cm* *:cmap*
Map the key sequence {lhs} to {rhs} for the modes
where the map command applies.

:no[remap]  {lhs} {rhs}					*:no*  *:noremap*
:nn[oremap] {lhs} {rhs}					*:nn*  *:nnoremap*
:vn[oremap] {lhs} {rhs}					*:vn*  *:vnoremap*
:no[remap]! {lhs} {rhs}					*:no!* *:noremap!*
:ino[remap] {lhs} {rhs}					*:ino* *:inoremap*
:cno[remap] {lhs} {rhs}					*:cno* *:cnoremap*
Map the key sequence {lhs} to {rhs} for the modes
where the map command applies.  Disallow mapping of
{rhs}. {not in Vi}

:unm[ap]  {lhs}						*:unm*  *:unmap*
:nun[map] {lhs}						*:nun*  *:nunmap*
:vu[nmap] {lhs}						*:vu*   *:vunmap*
:unm[ap]! {lhs}						*:unm!* *:unmap!*
:iu[nmap] {lhs}						*:iu*   *:iunmap*
:cu[nmap] {lhs}						*:cu*   *:cunmap*
Remove the mapping of {lhs} for the modes where the
map command applies.

:mapc[lear]						*:mapc*  *:mapclear*
:nmapc[lear]						*:nmapc* *:nmapclear*
:vmapc[lear]						*:vmapc* *:vmapclear*
:mapc[lear]!						*:mapc!* *:mapclear!*
:imapc[lear]						*:imapc* *:imapclear*
:cmapc[lear]						*:cmapc* *:cmapclear*
Remove all mappings for the modes where the map
command applies.  {not in Vi}

:map
:nm[ap]
:vm[ap]
:map!
:im[ap]
:cm[ap]
List all key mappings for the modes where the map
command applies.

:map    {lhs}						*:map_l*
:nm[ap] {lhs}						*:nmap_l*
:vm[ap] {lhs}						*:vmap_l*
:map!   {lhs}						*:map_l!*
:im[ap] {lhs}						*:imap_l*
:cm[ap] {lhs}						*:cmap_l*
List the key mappings for the key sequences starting
with {lhs} in the modes where the map command applies.
{not in Vi}

These commands are used to map a key or key sequence to a string of
characters.  You can use this to put command sequences under function keys,
translate one key into another, etc.  See the "Options" chapter below for how
to save and restore the current mapping |options|.

There are four sets of mappings
- For Insert mode. These are also used in Replace mode.
- For Command-line mode: When entering a ":" or "/" command.
- For Normal mode: When typing commands.
- For Visual mode: When typing commands while the Visual area is highlighted.

Overview of which map command works in which mode:

commands:				      modes:
Normal  Visual  Insert Command-line
:map   :noremap   :unmap   :mapclear         X       X       .         .
:nmap  :nnoremap  :nunmap  :nmapclear        X       .       .         .
:vmap  :vnoremap  :vunmap  :vmapclear        .       X       .         .
:map!  :noremap!  :unmap!  :mapclear!        .       .       X         X
:imap  :inoremap  :iunmap  :imapclear        .       .       X         .
:cmap  :cnoremap  :cunmap  :cmapclear        .       .       .         X

The original Vi did not have separate mappings for Normal/Visual mode and
Insert/Command-line mode.  Therefore the ":map" and ":map!" commands enter
and display mappings for both.  In Vim you can use the ":nmap", "vmap",
":cmap" and ":imap" commands to enter mappings for each mode separately.
When listing mappings the character in column 1 is

char		mode
<Space>		Normal and Visual
n		Normal
v		Visual
!		Insert and Command-line
i		Insert
c		Command-line

Note: When using mappings for Visual mode, you can use the '<' mark, which
is the start of the last selected Visual area |'<|.

Everything from the first non-blank after {lhs} up to the end of the line
(or '|') is considered to be part of {rhs}.  This allows the {rhs} to end
with a space.

*map_backslash*
Note that only CTRL-V is mentioned here as a special character for mappings
and abbreviations.  When 'cpoptions' does not contain 'B', a backslash can
also be used like CTRL-V.  The <> notation can be fully used then |<>|.  But
you cannot use "<C-V>" like CTRL-V to escape the special meaning of what
follows.

*map_space_in_lhs*
To include a space in {lhs} precede it with a CTRL-V (type two CTRL-Vs for
each space).
*map_space_in_rhs*
If you want a {rhs} that starts with a space, precede {rhs} with a single
CTRL-V (you have to type CTRL-V two times).
*map_empty_rhs*
You can create an empty {rhs} by typing nothing after a single CTRL-V (you
have to type CTRL-V two times).  Unfortunately, you cannot do this in a vimrc
file.

It is not possible to put a comment after this command, because the '"'
character is considered to be part of the {rhs}.

*map_bar*
Since the '|' character is used to separate a map command from the next
command, you will have to do something special to include  a '|' in {rhs}.
There are three methods:
use       works when                    example
<Bar>     '<' is not in 'cpoptions'     :map _l :!ls <Bar> more^M
\|        'b' is not in 'cpoptions'     :map _l :!ls \| more^M
^V|       always, in Vim and Vi         :map _l :!ls ^V| more^M

(here ^V stands for CTRL-V; to get one CTRL-V you have to type it twice; you
cannot use the <> notation "<C-V>" here).

All three work when you use the default setting for 'cpoptions'.

When 'b' is present in 'cpoptions', "\|" will be recognized as a mapping
ending in a '\' and then another command.  This is Vi compatible, but
unlogical when compared to other commands.

To avoid mapping of the characters you type in insert or Command-line mode,
type a CTRL-V first.  The mapping in Insert mode is disabled if the 'paste'
option is on.

Note that when an error is enountered (that causes an error message) the rest
of the mapping is not executed.  This is Vi-compatible.

Note that the second character (argument) of the commands @zZtTfF[]rm'"v
and CTRL-X is not mapped.  This was done to be able to use all the named
registers and marks, even when the command with the same name has been
mapped.

Some examples (given as you type them; e.g., the "^V" is CTRL-V which you
type, but will not show up on the screen):

:map g /foo^V^Mcwbar^V^[	(replace next "foo" with "bar")
:map! qq quadrillion questions

Vim will compare what you type with the start of a mapped sequence.  If there
is an incomplete match, it will get more characters until there either is a
complete match or until there is no match at all.  Example: If you map! "qq",
the first 'q' will not appear on the screen until you type another
character.  This is because Vim cannot know if the next character will be a
'q' or not.  If the 'timeout' option is on (which is the default) Vim will
only wait for one second (or as long as specified with the 'timeoutlen'
option).  After that it assumes that the 'q' is to be interpreted as such.  If
type slowly, or your system is slow, reset the 'timeout' option.  Then you
might want to set the 'ttimeout' option.  See the "Options" chapter |options|.

*recursive_mapping*
If you include the {lhs} in the {rhs} you have a recursive mapping.  When
{lhs} is typed, it will be replaced with {rhs}.  When the {lhs} which is
included in {rhs} is encountered it will be replaced with {rhs}, and so on.
This makes it possible to repeat a command an infinite number of times.  The
only problem is that the only way to stop this is by causing an error.  The
macros to solve a maze uses this, look there for an example.  There is one
exception: If the {rhs} starts with {lhs}, the first character is not mapped
again (this is Vi compatible).
For example:
:map ab abcd
will execute the "a" command and insert "bcd" in the text.  The "ab" in the
{rhs} will not be mapped again.

If you want to exchange the meaning of two keys you should use the :noremap
command.  For example:
:noremap k j
:noremap j k
This will exchange the cursor up and down commands.

With the normal :map command, when the 'remap' option is on, mapping takes
place until the text is found not to be a part of a {lhs}.  For example, if
you use:
:map x y
:map y x
Vim will replace x with y, and then y with x, etc.  When this has happened
'maxmapdepth' times (default 1000), Vim will give the error message
"recursive mapping".

See the file "index" for keys that are not used and thus can be mapped
without losing any builtin function.  I suggest you use function keys,
and meta-keys.  If you are prepared to lose a command that you hardly ever use
you can make mappings that start with '_' or '-'.  You can also use
":help <key>^D" to find out if a key is used for some command.  (<key> is the
specific key you want to find out about, ^D is CTRL-D).

If you include an undo command inside a mapped sequence, this will bring the
text back in the state before executing the macro.  This is compatible with
the original Vi, as long as there is only one undo command in the mapped
sequence (having two undo commands in a mapped sequence did not make sense
in the original Vi, you would get back the text before the first undo).

There are three ways to map a special key:
1. The Vi-compatible method: Map the key code.  Often this is a sequence that
starts with <Esc>.  To enter a mapping like this you type ":map " and then
you have to type CTRL-V before hitting the function key.  Note that when
the key code for the key is in the termcap (the t_ options), it will
automatically be translated into the internal code and become the second
way of mapping (unless the 'k' flag is included in 'cpoptions').
2. The second method is to use the internal code for the function key.  To
enter such a mapping type CTRL-K and then hit the function key, or use
the form "#1", "#2", .. "#9", "#0", "<Up>", "<S-Down>", "<S-F7>", etc.
(see table of keys |key_notation|, all keys from <Up> can be used).  The
first ten function keys can be defined in two ways: Just the number, like
"#2", and with "<F>", like "<F2>".  Both stand for function key 2.  "#0"
refers to function key 10, defined with option 't_f10', which may be
function key zero on some keyboards.  The <> form cannot be used when
'cpoptions' includes the '<' flag.
3. Use the termcap entry, with the form <t_xx>, where "xx" is the name of the
termcap entry.  Any string entry can be used.  For example:
:map <t_F3> G
Maps function key 13 to "G".  This does not work if 'cpoptions' includes
the '<' flag.

The advantage of the second and third method is that the mapping will work on
different terminals without modification (the function key will be
translated into the same internal code or the actual key code, no matter what
terminal you are using.  The termcap must be correct for this to work, and you
must use the same mappings).

DETAIL: Vim first checks if a sequence from the keyboard is mapped.  If it
isn't the terminal key codes are tried (see section 20.2
|terminal_options|).  If a terminal code is found it is replaced with the
internal code.  Then the check for a mapping is done again (so you can map an
internal code to something else).  What is written into the script file
depends on what is recognized.  If the terminal key code was recognized as a
mapping the key code itself is written to the script file.  If it was
recognized as a terminal code the internal code is written to the script
file.

18. Recovery after a crash				*crash_recovery*
==========================

You have spent several hours typing in that text that has to be finished
next morning, and then disaster strikes: Your computer crashes.

DON'T PANIC!

You can recover most of your changes from the files that Vim uses to store
the contents of the file.  Mostly you can recover your work with one command:
vim -r filename

18.1 The swap file					*swap_file*

Vim stores the things you changed in a swap file.  Using the original file
you started from plus the swap file you can mostly recover your work.

You can see the name of the current swap file being used with the command:

:sw[apname]					*:sw* *:swapname*

The name of the swap file is normally the same as the file you are editing,
with the extension ".swp".  On MS-DOS and Win32 machines and when the
'shortname' option is on, any '.' in the original file name is replaced with
'_'.  If this file already exists (e.g., when you are recovering from a crash)
a warning is given and another extension is used, ".swo", ".swn", etc.  An
existing file will never be overwritten.  The swap file is deleted as soon as
Vim stops editing the file.

Technical: The replacement of '.' with '_' is done to avoid problems with
MS-DOS compatible filesystems (e.g., crossdos, multidos).  If Vim
is able to detect that the file is on an MS-DOS-like filesystem, a
flag is set that has the same effect as the 'shortname' option.
This flag is reset when you start editing another file.

If the ".swp" filename already exists, the last character is
decremented until there is no file with that name or ".swa" is
reached.  In the last case, no swap file is created.

By setting the 'directory' option you can place the swap file in another place
than where the edited file is.
- You will not pollute the directories with ".swp" files.
- When the 'directory' is on another partition, reduce the risk of damaging
the file system where the file is (in a crash).
- You can get name collisions from files with the same name but in different
directories (although Vim tries to avoid that by comparing the path name).
This will result in bogus ATTENTION warning messages.
- When you use your home directory, and somebody else tries to edit the same
file, he will not see your swap file and will not get the ATTENTION waring
message.
On the Amiga you can also use a recoverable ram disk, but there is no 100%
guarantee that this works.  Putting swap files in a normal ram disk (like RAM:
on the Amiga) or in a place that is cleared when rebooting (like /tmp on Unix)
makes no sense, you will lose the swap file in a crash.

If you want to put swap files in a fixed place, put a command resembling the
following ones in your .vimrc:
:set dir=dh2:tmp	(for Amiga)
:set dir=~/tmp		(for Unix)
:set dir=c:\\tmp	(for MS-DOS and Win32)
This is also very handy when editing files on floppy.  Of course you will have
to create that "tmp" directory for this to work!

When starting to edit a file, Vim checks if a swap file already exists for
that file.  If there is one, you will get a message indicating that something
is wrong:

ATTENTION
Found a swap file by the name "../doc/vim_ref.txt.swp"
dated: Thu May 16 11:46:31 1996
file name: ~mool/vim/vim/doc/vim_ref.txt
host name: Kibaale
user name: mool
process ID: 211 (still running)
While opening file "../doc/vim_ref.txt"
dated: Wed May 15 21:38:40 1996

You are to take one of two actions:

1. Quit editing this file, because another edit session is active on this
file.  Continuing to edit will result in two versions of the same file.
The one that is written last will overwrite the other one, resulting in
loss of changes.  The text "(still running)" indicates that the process
editing this file runs on the same computer (Unix only).  When working over
a network you will not see this message, because the process will be
running on another computer.
2. Recover a previously crashed edit session.  See below |recovery|.

Vim cannot always detect that a swap file already exists for a file.  This is
the case when the other edit session puts the swap files in another
directory or when the path name for the file is different when editing it on
different machines.

The swap file is updated after typing 200 characters or when you have not
typed anything for four seconds.  This only happens if the buffer was
changed, not when you only moved around.  The reason why it is not kept up to
date all the time is that this would slow down normal work too much.  You can
change the 200 character count with the 'updatecount' option.  You can set
the time with the 'updatetime' option.  The time is given in milliseconds.
After writing to the swap file Vim syncs the file to disk.  This takes some
time, especially on busy Unix systems.  If you don't want this you can set the
'swapsync' option to an empty string.  The risk of loosing work becomes bigger
though.  On some non-Unix systems (MS-DOS, Amiga) the swap file won't be
written at all.

If the writing to the swap file is not wanted, it can be switched off by
setting the 'updatecount' option to 0.  The same is done when starting Vim
with the "-n" option.  Writing can be switched back on by setting the
'updatecount' option to non-zero.  Swap files will be created for all buffers
when doing this.  But when setting 'updatecount' to zero, the existing swap
files will not be removed, it will only affect files that will be opened
after this.

If you want to make sure that your changes are in the swap file use this
command:

*:pre* *:preserve*
:pre[serve]		Write all text for all buffers into swap file.  The
original file is no longer needed for recovery.  {Vi:
emergency exit}

A Vim swap file can be recognized by the first six characters: "b0VIM ".
After that comes the version number, e.g., "3.0".

18.2 Recovery						*recovery*

In most cases recovery is quite easy: Start Vim on the same file you were
editing when the crash happened, with the "-r" option added.  Vim will read
the ".swp" file and may read bits and pieces of the original file.

Example:	vim -r vim_ref.txt

If you were editing without a file name, give an empty string as argument:
vim -r ""

If there are several swap files that look they may be the one you want to
use, a list is given of these swap files and you are requested to enter the
number of the one you want to use.  In case you don't know which one to use,
just try them one by one and check the resulting files if they are what you
expected.

If you know which swap file needs to be used, you can recover by giving the
swap file name.  Vim will then find out the name of the original file from
the swap file.

Example:	Vim -r vim_ref.txt.swo

This is also handy when the swap file is in another directory than expected.
If this still does not work, see what file names Vim reports and rename the
files accordingly.  Check the 'directory' option to see where Vim may have
put the swap file.

Another way to do recovery is to start Vim and use the ":recover" command.
This is easy when you start Vim to edit a file and you get the "ATTENTION:
Found a swap file ..." message.  In this case the single command ":recover"
will do the work.  You can also give the name of the file or the swap file to
the recover command:
*:rec* *:recover*
:rec[over] [file]	Try to recover [file] from the swap file.  If [file]
is not given use the file name for the current
buffer.  The current contents of the buffer are lost.
This command fails if the buffer was modified.

:rec[over]! [file]	Like ":recover", but any changes in the current
buffer are lost.

Vim has some intelligence about what to do if the swap file is corrupt in
some way.  If Vim has doubt about what it found, it will give an error
message and insert lines with "???" in the text.  If you see an error message
while recovering, search in the file for "???" to see what is wrong.  You may
want to cut and paste to get the text you need.

Be sure that the recovery was successful before overwriting the original
file or deleting the swap file.  It is good practice to write the recovered
file elsewhere and run 'diff' to find out if the changes you want are in the
recovered file.

Once you are sure the recovery is ok delete the swap file.  Otherwise, you
will continue to get warning messages that the ".swp" file already exists.

{Vi: recovers in another way and sends mail if there is something to recover}

19. Options						*options*
===========

Vi has a number of internal variables and switches which can be set to
achieve special effects.  These options come in three forms:
toggle		can only be on or off		*toggle*
number		has a numeric value
string		has a string value

19.1 Setting options					*set_option*

*:se* *:set*
:se[t]			Show all options that differ from their default value.

:se[t] all		Show all but terminal options.

:se[t] termcap		Show all terminal options.

:se[t] {option}?	Show value of {option}.

:se[t] {option}		Toggle option: set, switch it on.
Number option: show value.
String option: show value.

:se[t] no{option}	Toggle option: Reset, switch it off.

:se[t] {option}!   or
:se[t] inv{option}	Toggle option: Invert value.  {not in Vi}

:se[t] {option}&	Reset option to its default value.  {not in Vi}

:se[t] {option}={value}		or
:se[t] {option}:{value}
Set string or number option to {value}.  For numeric
options the value can be given in decimal, hex
(preceded with 0x) or octal (preceded with '0')
(hex and octal are only available for machines which
have the strtol() function).  The old value can be
inserted by typing <Tab> (or whatever the value of
'wildchar' is).  See 4.4.2 |cmdline_completion|.
See |option_backslash| for using backslashes in
{value}.

*:fix* *:fixdel*
:fix[del]		Set the value of 't_kD':
't_kb' is     't_kD' becomes
CTRL-?	CTRL-H
not CTRL-?	CTRL-?

(CTRL-? is 0177 octal, 0x7f hex) {not in Vi}

If your delete key terminal code is wrong, but the
code for backspace is allright, you can put this in
:fixdel
This works no matter what the actual code for
backspace is.

If the backspace key terminal code is
wrong you can use this:
:set t_kb=^V<BS>
:fixdel
Where "^V" is CTRL-V and "<BS>" is the backspace
key.  This will only work for terminals with the same
code for the backspace key, you cannot use this in
your .vimrc unless the code for backspace is the same
on all your systems.

If your <Delete> key sends a strange key sequence (not
CTRL-? or CTRL-H) you cannot use ":fixdel".  Then use:
:set t_kD=^V<Delete>
Where "^V" is CTRL-V and "<Delete>" is the delete key.
This will only work on systems with the same terminal
codes for delete.

Note about Linux: By default the backspace key
produces CTRL-?, which is wrong.  You can fix it by
putting this line in your rc.local:
echo "keycode 14 = BackSpace" | loadkeys

The {option} arguments to ":set" may be repeated.  For example:
":set ai nosi sw=3 ts=3".
If you make an error in one of the arguments an error message will be given
and the text up to the next space will be skipped.  Thus following arguments
will be processed.

For {option} the form "t_xx" may be used to set a termcap option.  This will
override the value from the termcap.  You can then use it in a mapping.  If
the "xx" part contains special characters, use the <t_xx> form:
:set <t_#4>=^[Ot

The listing from ":set" looks different from Vi.  Long string options are put
at the end of the list.  The number of options is quite large.  The output of
"set all" probably does not fit on the screen, causing Vim to give the
"--more--" message.  See the 'more' option.

*:set_env*
Environment variables in most string options will be expanded.  If the
environment variable exists the '$' and the following environment variable name is replaced with its value. If it does not exist the '$' and the name
are not modified.  Any non-id character (not a letter, digit or '_') may
follow the environment variable name.  That character and what follows is
appended to the value of the environment variable.  Examples:
:set term=$TERM.new :set path=/usr/$INCLUDE,$HOME/include,. Using "~" is like using "$HOME", but it is only recognized at the start of an
option and after a space or comma.

*option_backslash*
To include white space in a string option value it has to be preceded with a
backslash.  To include a backslash you have to use two.  Effectively this
means that the number of backslashes in an option value is halved (rounded
down).
A few examples:
:set tags=tags\ /usr/tags 	results in "tags /usr/tags"
:set tags=tags\\,file		results in "tags\,file"
:set tags=tags\\\ file		results in "tags\ file"

For MS-DOS and WIN32 backslashes in file names are mostly not removed.  More
precise: For options that expect a file name (those where environment
variables are expanded) a backslash before a normal file name character is not
removed.  But a backslash before a special character (space, backslash, comma,
etc.) is used like explained above.

19.2 Automatically setting options			*auto_setting*

Besides changing options with the ":set" command, there are three alternatives
to set options automatically for one or more files:

1. When starting Vim initializations are read from various places.  See
|initialization|.  Most of them are performed for all editing sessions,
and some of them depend on the directory where Vim is started.
2. If you start editing a new file, the automatic commands are executed.
This can be used to set options for files matching a particular pattern and
many other things.  See the section "Automatic commands" |autocommand|.
3. If you start editing a new file, and the 'modeline' option is on, a
number of lines at the beginning and end of the file are checked for
modelines.  This is explained here.

*modeline*
There are two forms of modelines.  The first form:
[text]{white}{vi:|vim:|ex:}[white]{options}

[text]		any text or empty
{white}		at least one white space (<Space> or <Tab>)
{vi:|vim:|ex:}	the string "vi:", "vim:" or "ex:"
[white]		optional white space
{options}	a list of option settings, separated with white space or ':',
where each part between ':' is the argument for a ":set"
command

Example:
" vi:noai:sw=3 ts=6"

The second form (this is compatible with some versions of Vi):

[text]{white}{vi:|vim:|ex:}[white]set {options}:[text]

[text]		any text or empty
{white}		at least one white space (<Space> or <Tab>)
{vi:|vim:|ex:}	the string "vi:", "vim:" or "ex:"
[white]		optional white space
set 		the string "set " (note the space)
{options}	a list of options, separated with white space, which is the
argument for a ":set" command
:		a colon
[text]		any text or empty

Example:
"/* vim: set ai tw=75: */"

The white space before {vi:|vim:|ex:} is required.  This minimizes the chance
that a normal word like "lex:" is caught.  There is one exception: "vi:" and
"vim:" can also be at the start of the line (for compatibility with version
3.0).  Using "ex:" at the start of the line will be ignored (this could be
short for "example:").

The number of lines that are checked can be set with the 'modelines' option.
If 'modeline' is off or 'modelines' is 0 no lines are checked.

Note that for the first form all of the rest of the line is used, thus a line
like:
"/* vi:ts=4: */"
will give an error message for the trailing "*/".  This line is OK:
"/* vi:set ts=4: */"

If an error is detected the rest of the line is skipped.

If you want to include a ':' in a set command precede it with a '\'.  No other
commands than "set" are supported, for security reasons (somebody might create
a trojan horse text file with modelines).

19.3 Saving settings					*save_settings*

*:mk* *:mkexrc*
:mk[exrc] [file]	Write current key mappings and changed options to
[file] (default ".exrc" in the current directory),
unless it already exists.  {not in Vi}

:mk[exrc]! [file]	Always write current key mappings and changed
options to [file] (default ".exrc" in the current
directory).  {not in Vi}

*:mkv* *:mkvimrc*
:mkv[imrc][!] [file]	Like as :mkexrc, but default is ".vimrc" in the
current directory.  The ":version" command is also
written to the file.  {not in Vi}

These commands will write ":map" and ":set" commands to a file, in such a way
that when these commands are executed, the current key mappings and options
will be set to the same values.  The options 'columns', 'endofline', 'lines',
'modified', 'scroll', 'term' and 'ttyfast' are not included, because these are
terminal or file dependent.  Note that the options 'binary', 'textmode',
'paste' and 'readonly' are included, this might not always be what you want.

A common method is to use a default ".vimrc" file, make some modifications
with ":map" and ":set" commands and write the modified file.  First read the
default ".vimrc" in with a command like ":source ~piet/.vimrc.Cprogs", change
the settings and then save them in the current directory with ":mkvimrc!".  If
you want to make this file your default .vimrc, move it to your home directory
(on Unix), s: (Amiga) or $VIM directory (MS-DOS). You could also use autocommands |autocommand| and/or modelines |modeline|. 19.4 Options summary *option_summary* In the list below all the options are mentioned with their full name and some with an abbreviation between parens. Both forms may be used. In this document when an option that can be toggled is "set" that means that ":set option" is entered. When an option is "reset", ":set nooption" is used. Most options are the same in all windows and buffers. There are a few that are specific to how the text is presented in a window. These can be set to a different value in each window. For example the 'list' option can be set in one window and reset in another for the same text, giving both types of view at the same time. There are a few options that are specific to a certain file. These can have a different value for each file or buffer. For example the 'textwith' option can be 78 for a normal text file and 0 for a C program. global one option for all buffers and windows local to window each window has its own copy of this option local to buffer each buffer has its own copy of this option When creating a new window the option values from the currently active window are used as a default value for the window-specific options. For the buffer-specific options this depends on the 's' and 'S' flags in the 'cpoptions' option. If 's' in included (which is the default) the values for buffer options are copied from the currently active buffer when a buffer is first entered. If 'S' is present the options are copied each time the buffer is entered, this is almost like having global options. If 's' and 'S' are not present, the options are copied from the currently active buffer when the buffer is created. A jump table for the options with a short description can be found at |X_op|. *'aleph'* *'al'* aleph (al) number (default 128 for MS-DOS, 224 otherwise) global {not in Vi} {This option applies only if Vim was compiled with RIGHTLEFT defined} The ASCII code for the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The routine that maps the keyboard in Hebrew mode, both in Insert mode (when hkmap is set) and on the command line (when hitting CTRL-_) outputs the Hebrew characters in the range [aleph..aleph+26]. aleph=128 applies to PC code, and aleph=224 applies to ISO 8859-8. See |vim_rlh.txt|. *'autoindent'* *'ai'* *'noautoindent'* *'noai'* autoindent (ai) toggle (default off) local to buffer Copy indent from current line when starting a new line (typing <CR> in Insert mode or when using the "o" or "O" command). If you do not type anything on the new line except <BS> and then type <Esc> or <CR>, the indent is deleted again. When autoindent is on, formatting (with the "gq" command or when you reach 'textwidth' in Insert mode) uses the indentation of the first line. When 'smartindent' or 'cindent' is on the indent is changed in specific cases. The 'autoindent' option is reset when the 'paste' option is set. {small difference from Vi: After the indent is deleted when typing <Esc> or <CR>, the cursor position when moving up or down is after the deleted indent; Vi puts the cursor somewhere in the deleted indent}. *'autowrite'* *'aw'* *'noautowrite'* *'noaw'* autowrite (aw) toggle (default off) global Write the contents of the file, if it has been modified, on each :next, :rewind, :previous, :stop, :suspend, :tag, :!, :make, CTRL-] and CTRL-^ command; and when a CTRL-O, CTRL-I, '<A-Z0-9>, or <A-Z0-9> command takes one to another file. *'backspace'* *'bs'* backspace (bs) number (default 0) global {not in Vi} Influences the working of <BS>, <Del>, CTRL-W and CTRL-U in Insert mode. If set to 0 Vi compatible backspacing is used. When 1 allow backspacing over newlines. When larger than 1 allow backspacing over the start of insert. In the last case CTRL-W and CTRL-U stop once at the start of insert. See |:fixdel| if your <BS> or <Del> key does not do what you want. *'backup'* *'bk'* *'nobackup'* *'nobk'* backup (bk) toggle (default off) global {not in Vi} Make a backup before overwriting a file. Leave it around after the file has been successfully written. If you do not want to keep the backup file, but you do want a backup while the file is being written, reset this option and set the 'writebackup' option (this is the default). If you do not want a backup file at all reset both options (use this if your file system is almost full). See the table in section 5.4 for more explanations |backup_table|. *'backupdir'* *'bdir'* backupdir (bdir) string (default for Amiga: ".,t:", for MS-DOS and Win32: ".,c:/tmp,c:/temp" for Unix: ".,~/tmp,~/") global {not in Vi} List of directories for the backup file, separated with commas. - The backup file will be created in the first directory in the list where this is possible. - Empty means that no backup file will be created ('patchmode' is impossible!). - A directory "." means to put the backup file in the same directory as the edited file. - A directory starting with "./" (or ".\" for MS-DOS et.al.) means to put the backup file relative to where the edited file is. The leading "." is replaced with the path name of the edited file. - Spaces after the comma are ignored, other spaces are considered part of the directory name. To have a space at the start of a directory name, precede it with a backslash. - To include a comma in a directory name precede it with a backslash. - A directory name may end in an '/'. - Environment variables are expanded |:set_env|. - Careful with '\' characters, type one before a space, type two to get one in the option (see |option_backslash|), for example: :set bdir=c:\\tmp,\ dir\\,with\\,commas,\\\ dir\ with\ spaces - For backwards compatibility with Vim version 3.0 a '>' at the start of the option is removed. See also 'backup' and 'writebackup' options. *'backupext'* *'bex'* backupext (bex) string (default "~") global {not in Vi} String which is appended to a file name to make the name of the backup file. The default is quite unusual, because this avoids accidently overwriting existing files with a backup file. You might prefer using ".bak", but make sure that you don't have files with ".bak" that you want to keep. *'binary'* *'bin'* *'nobinary'* *'nobin'* binary (bin) toggle (default off) local to buffer {not in Vi} This option should be set before editing a binary file. You can also use the "-b" Vim argument. When this option is switched on a few options will be changed (also when it already was on): 'textwidth' will be set to 0 'wrapmargin' will be set to 0 'modeline' will be off 'textmode' will be off 'textauto' will be off 'expandtab' will be off NOTE: When you start editing a(nother) file while the 'bin' option is on, settings from the modelines or autocommands may change the settings again (e.g., 'textwidth'), causing trouble when editing. You might want to set 'bin' again when the file has been loaded. The previous values of these options are remembered and restored when 'bin' is switched fron on to off. Each buffer has its own set of saved option values, except for 'textauto', which is global. When writing a file the end-of-line for the last line is only written if there was one in the original file (normally Vim appends an end-of-line to the last line if there is none; this would make the file longer). See the 'endofline' option. *'bioskey'* *'biosk'* *'nobioskey'* *'nobiosk'* bioskey (biosk) toggle (default on) global {not in Vi} {Only for MS-DOS} When on the bios is called to obtain a keyboard character. This works better to detect CTRL-C, but only works for the console. When using a terminal over a serial port reset this option. *'breakat'* *'brk'* breakat (brk) string (default " ^I!@*-+_;:,./?") global {not in Vi} This option lets you choose which characters might cause a line break if 'linebreak' is on. *'cindent'* *'cin'* *'nocindent'* *'nocin'* cindent (cin) toggle (default off) local to buffer {not in Vi} {Only present when compiled with CINDENT enabled, ":version" says "+cindent" instead of "-cindent"} Enables automatic C program indenting See 'cinkeys' to set the keys that trigger reindenting in insert mode and 'cinoptions' to set your preferred indent style. If 'lisp' is not on and 'equalprg' is empty, the "=" operator indents using this algorithm rather than calling an external program. See |C_indenting|. This option is switched off when 'paste' is set. When you don't like the way 'cindent' works, try the 'smartindent' option. cinkeys (cink) string (default "0{,0},:,0#,!^F,o,O,e") local to buffer {not in Vi} {Only present when compiled with CINDENT enabled} A list of keys that, when typed in insert mode, cause reindenting of the current line. Only happens if 'cindent' is on. See |C_indenting|. *'cinoptions'* *'cino'* cinoptions (cino) string (default "") local to buffer {not in Vi} {Only present when compiled with CINDENT enabled} The 'cinoptions' affect the way 'cindent' reindents lines in a C program. See |C_indenting|. *'cinwords'* *'cinw'* cinwords (cinw) string (default "if,else,while,do,for,switch") local to buffer {not in Vi} {Only present when compiled with CINDENT or SMARTINDENT enabled} These keywords start an extra indent in the next line when 'smartindent' or 'cindent' is set. For 'cindent' this is only done at an appropriate place (inside {}). *'cmdheight'* *'ch'* cmdheight (ch) number (default 1) global {not in Vi} Number of lines to use for the command line. If you are annoyed by "Hit return ..." caused by long messages, set this option to a larger value. *'columns'* *'co'* columns (co) number (default 80 or terminal width) global {not in Vi} Number of columns of the screen. Normally this is set by the terminal initialization and does not have to be set by hand. *'comments'* *'com'* comments (com) string (default "sr:/*,mb:*,el:*/,://,b:#,:%,:XCOMM,n:>,fb:-") local to buffer {not in Vi} A comma separated list of patterns that can start a comment line. See |format_comments|. See |option_backslash| about using backslashes to insert a space. *'compatible'* *'cp'* *'nocompatible'* *'nocp'* compatible (cp) toggle (default off, on when compiled with COMPATIBLE defined, ":version" shows "+compatible") global {not in Vi} At the moment this option is set, several other options will be set or reset to make Vim Vi-compatible. Switching this option off has no effect. See also 'cpoptions'. option new value effect backspace 0 normal backspace backup off no backup file cindent off no C code indentation cpoptions "bBcefFkmorsStwx$!%<"	vi-compatible flags
digraph		off		no digraphs
esckeys		off		no <Esc>-keys in Insert mode
expandtab	off		tabs not expanded to spaces
formatoptions	"vt"		Vi compatible formatting
gdefault	off		no default 'g' flag for ":s"
history		0		no commandline history
insertmode	off		do not start in Insert mode
iskeyword	"@,48-57,_"	keywords contain alphanumeric
characters and '_'
joinspaces	on		insert 2 spaces after period
modeline	off		no modelines
more		off		no pauses in listings
revins		off		no reverse insert
ruler		off		no ruler
scrolljump	1		no jump scroll
scrolloff	0		no scroll offset
shiftround	off		indent not rounded to shiftwidth
showcmd		off		command characters not shown
showmode	off		current mode not shown
smartcase	off		no automatic ignore case switch
smartindent	off		no smart indentation
smarttab	off		no smart tab size
startofline	on		goto startofline with some commands
textauto	off		no automatic textmode detection
textwidth	0		no automatic line wrap
tildeop		off		tilde is not an operator
ttimeout	off		no terminal timeout
undolevels	0		no multilevel undo
updatecount	0		no swap file
whichwrap	""		left-right movements don't wrap
wildchar	CTRL-E		only when the current value is <Tab>
use CTRL-E for cmdline completion
writebackup	off		no backup file written

*'cpoptions'* *'cpo'*
cpoptions (cpo)		string	(default "BceFs", unless compiled with
COMPATIBLE defined, then all flags are
included)
global
{not in Vi}
Sequence of characters.  When a character is present this indicates
vi-compatible behaviour.  This is used for things where not being
vi-compatible is mostly or sometimes preferred.  'cpoptions' stands
for 'compatibleoptions'.  Commas can be added for readability.

contains	behaviour
b	"\|" in a ":map" command is recognized as the end of
the map command.  The '\' is included in the mapping,
the text after the '|' is interpreted as the next
command.  Use a CTRL-V instead of a backslash to
include the '|' in the mapping.  Applies to all
mapping, abbreviation, menu and autocmd commands.
B	A backslash has no special meaning in mappings,
abbreviations and the "to" part of the menu commands.
Remove this flag to be able to use a backslash like a
CTRL-V.  This flag must be removed to be able to fully
use the <> notation.  For example, the command
":map X \<Esc>" results in X being mapped to:
'B' included:	"\^["    (^[ is a real <Esc>)
'B' excluded:   "<Esc>"  (5 characters)
('<' excluded in both cases)
<	Disable the recognition of special key codes in <>
form in mappings, abbreviations, and the "to" part of
menu commands.  For example, the command
":map X <Tab>" results in X being mapped to:
'<' included:   "<Tab>"  (5 characters)
'<' excluded:   "^I"     (^I is a real <Tab>)
Also see the 'k' flag below.
c	Searching continues at the end of any match at the
cursor position.  When not present searching continues
one character from the cursor position.  With 'c'
"abababababab" only gets three matches when repeating
"/abab", without 'c' there are five matches.
e	When executing a register with ":@r", always add a
<CR> to the last line, also when the register is not
linewise.  If this flag is not present, the register
is not linewise and the last line does not end in a
<CR>, then the last line is put on the command line
and can be edited before hitting <CR>.
f	When included, a ":read" command with a file name
argument will set the file name for the current buffer,
if the current buffer doesn't have a file name yet.
F	When included, a ":write" command with a file name
argument will set the file name for the current buffer,
if the current buffer doesn't have a file name yet.
k	Disable the recognition of raw key codes in
mappings, abbreviations, and the "to" part of menu
commands.  For example, if <Key> sends ^[OA (where ^[
is <Esc>), the command ":map X ^[OA" results in X
being mapped to:
'k' included:   "^[OA"   (3 characters)
'k' excluded:   "<Key>"  (one key code)
Also see the '<' flag above.
m	When included, a showmatch will always wait half a
second.  When not included, a showmatch will wait half
a second or until a character is typed.  |'showmatch'|
o	Line offset to search command is not remembered for
next search.
r	Redo ("." command) uses "/" to repeat a search
command, instead of the actually used search string.
s	Set buffer options when entering the buffer for the
first time.  This is like it is in Vim version 3.0.
And it is the default.  If not present the options are
set when the buffer is created.
S	Set buffer options always when entering a buffer
(except 'readonly' and 'textmode').  This is the
(most) Vi compatible setting.
The options are set to the values in the current
buffer.  When you change an option and go to another
buffer, the value is copied.  Effectively makes the
buffer options global to all buffers.

's'    'S'     copy buffer options
no     no      when buffer created
yes    no      when buffer first entered (default)
X     yes     each time when buffer entered (vi comp.)

t	Search pattern for the tag command is remembered for
"n" command.  Otherwise Vim only puts the pattern in
the history for search pattern, but doesn't change the
last used search pattern.
w	When using "cw" on a blank character, only change one
character and not all blanks until the start of the
next word.
x	<Esc> on the command line executes the command line.
The default in Vim is to abandon the command line,
because <Esc> normally aborts a command.  |c_<Esc>|
$When making a change to one line, don't redisplay the line, but put a '$' at the end of the changed text.
The changed text will be overwritten when you type the
new text.  The line is redisplayed if you type any
command that moves the cursor from the insertion
point.
!	When redoing a filter command, use the last used
external command, whatever it was.  Otherwise the last
used -filter- command is used.
%	Vi-compatible matching is done for the "%" command.
Parens inside single and double quotes are also
counted, causing a string that contains a paren to
disturb the matching.  For example, in a line like
"if (strcmp("foo(", s))" the first paren does not
match the last one.  When this flag is not included,
parens inside single and double quotes are treated
specially.  When matching a paren outside of quotes,
everything inside quotes is ignored.  When matching a
paren inside quotes, it will find the matching one (if
there is one).  This works very well for C programs.

*'define'* *'def'*
define (def)		string	(default "^#[ \t]*define")
global
{not in Vi}
Pattern to be used to find a macro definition.  It is a search
pattern, just like for the "/" command.  The default value is for C
programs.  This option is used for the commands like "[i" and "[d"
|include_search|.  The 'isident' option is used to recognize the
identifier name after the match.  See |option_backslash| about
inserting backslashes to include a space or backslash.

*'dictionary'* *'dict'*
dictionary (dict)	string	(default "")
global
{not in Vi}
List of file names, separated by commas, that are used to lookup words
for keyword completion commands |i_CTRL-X_CTRL-K|.  Each file should
contain a list of words, one word per line.  To include a comma in a
file name precede it with a backslash.  Spaces after a comma are
ignored, otherwise spaces are included in the file name.  See
|option_backslash| about using backslashes.

*'digraph'* *'dg'* *'nodigraph'* *'nodg'*
digraph (dg)		toggle	(default off)
global
{not in Vi}
{Only applies when compiled with DIGRAPHS defined,
check with ":version"}
Enable the entering of digraphs in Insert mode with {char1} <BS>
{char2}.  See |digraphs|.

*'directory'* *'dir'*
directory (dir)		string	(default for Amiga: ".,t:",
for MS-DOS and Win32: ".,c:\tmp,c:\temp"
for Unix: ".,~/tmp,/tmp")
global
List of directory names for the swap file, separated with commas.
- The swap file will be created in the first directory where this is
possible.
- Empty means that no swap file will be used (recovery is
impossible!).
- A directory "." means to put the swap file in the same directory as
the edited file.
- A directory starting with "./" (or ".\" for MS-DOS et.al.) means to
put the swap file relative to where the edited file is.  The leading
"." is replaced with the path name of the edited file.
- Spaces after the comma are ignored, other spaces are considered part
of the directory name.  To have a space at the start of a directory
name, precede it with a backslash.
- To include a comma in a directory name precede it with a backslash.
- A directory name may end in an ':' or '/'.
- Environment variables are expanded |:set_env|.
- Careful with '\' characters, type one before a space, type two to
get one in the option (see |option_backslash|), for example:
:set dir=c:\\tmp,\ dir\\,with\\,commas,\\\ dir\ with\ spaces
- For backwards compatibility with Vim version 3.0 a '>' at the start
of the option is removed.
Using "." first in the list is recommended.  This means that editing
the same file twice will result in a warning.  Using "/tmp" on Unix is
discouraged, when the system crashes you lose the swap file.  That is
why a "tmp" directory in your home directory is used first.
{Vi: directory to put temp file in, defaults to "/tmp"}

*'ed'* *'edcompatible'* *'noed'* *'noedcompatible'*
edcompatible (ed)	toggle	(default off)
global
Makes the 'g' and 'c' flags of the ":substitute" command to be
toggled each time the flag is given.  See 11.3 |complex_change|.  See
also 'gdefault' option.

*'endofline'* *'eol'* *'noendofline'* *'noeol'*
endofline (eol)		toggle	(default on)
local to buffer
{not in Vi}
When writing a file and this option is off and the 'binary' option
is on, no end of line (newline) character will be written for the
last line in the file.  This option is automatically set when
starting to edit a new file, unless the file does not have an end of
line (newline) for the last line in the file, in which case it is
reset.  Normally you don't have to set or reset this option.  When
'binary' is off the value is not used when writing the file.  When
'binary' is on it is used to remember the presence of a newline for
the last line in the file, so that when you write the file the
situation from the original file can be kept.  But you can change it
when you want to.

*'equalalways'* *'ea'* *'noequalalways'* *'noea'*
equalalways (ea)	toggle	(default on)
global
{not in Vi}
When on all the windows are automatically made the same size after
splitting or closing a window.  When off, splitting a window will
reduce the size of the current window and leave the other windows the
same.  When closing a window the extra lines are given the the window
above it.

*'equalprg'* *'ep'*
equalprg (ep)		string	(default "")
global
{not in Vi}
External program to use for "=" command.  When this option is empty
the internal formatting functions are used ('lisp' or 'cindent').
Environment variables are expanded |:set_env|.  See |option_backslash|
about including spaces and backslashes.

*'errorbells'* *'eb'* *'noerrorbells'* *'noeb'*
errorbells (eb)		toggle	(default off)
global
Ring the bell (beep or screen flash) for error messages.  This only
makes a difference for error messages, the bell will be used always
for a lot of errors without a message (e.g., hitting <Esc> in Normal
mode).  See 'visualbell' on how to make the bell behave like a beep,
screen flash or do nothing.

*'errorfile'* *'ef'*
errorfile (ef)		string	(default "AztecC.Err" or "errors.vim")
global
{not in Vi}
Name of the error file for the QuickFix mode (see 5.5
|:make_makeprg|).  Environment variables are expanded |:set_env|.  See
|option_backslash| about including spaces and backslashes.

*'errorformat'* *'efm'*
errorformat (efm)	string	(default is very long)
global
{not in Vi}
Scanf-like description of the format for the lines in the error file
(see 5.5 |errorformat|).

*'esckeys'* *'ek'* *'noesckeys'* *'noek'*
esckeys (ek)		toggle	(default on, off when compiled with COMPATIBLE
defined)
global
{not in Vi}
Function keys that start with an <Esc> are recognized in Insert
mode.  When this option is off, the cursor and function keys cannot be
used in Insert mode if they start with an <Esc>.  The advantage of
this is that the single <Esc> is recognized immediately, instead of
after one second.  Instead of resetting this option, you might want to
try changing the values for 'timeoutlen' and 'ttimeoutlen'.

*'expandtab'* *'et'* *'noexpandtab'* *'noet'*
expandtab (et)		toggle	(default off)
local to buffer
{not in Vi}
In Insert mode: Use the appropriate number of spaces to insert a
<Tab>.  Spaces are used in indents with the '>' and '<' commands and
when 'autoindent' is on.  To insert a real tab when 'expandtab' is
on, use CTRL-V<Tab>.  See also ":retab" command in 11.3 |:retab|
and section 4.3.4 |ins_expandtab|.

*'exrc'* *'noexrc'*
exrc			toggle (default off)
global
{not in Vi}
Enables the reading of .vimrc, .exrc and .gvimrc in the current
directory.  If you switch this option on you should also consider
setting the 'secure' option (see 3.4 |initialization|).  Using a local
.exrc, .vimrc or .gvimrc is a potential security leak, use with care!
also see |.vimrc| and |gui_init|.

*'formatoptions'* *'fo'*
formatoptions (fo)	string (default "tcq", "vt" when compiled with
COMPATIBLE defined)
local to buffer
{not in Vi}
This is a sequence of letters which describes how automatic
formatting is to be done.  See |fo_table|.  When the 'paste' option is
on, no formatting is done (like 'formatoptions' is empty).  Commas can
be inserted for readability.

*'formatprg'* *'fp'*
formatprg (fp)		string (default "")
global
{not in Vi}
The name of an external program that will be used to format the lines
selected with the "gq" command.  The program must take the input on
stdin and produce the output on stdout.  The Unix program 'fmt' is
such a program.  If this option is an empty string, the internal
format function will be used |C_indenting|.  Environment variables are
expanded |:set_env|.  See |option_backslash| about including spaces
and backslashes.

*'gdefault'* *'gd'* *'nogdefault'* *'nogd'*
gdefault (gd)		toggle	(default off)
global
{not in Vi}
When on, the ":substitute" flag 'g' is default on.  This means that
all matches in a line are substituted instead of one.  When a 'g' flag
is given to a ":substitute" command, this will toggle the substitution
of all or one match.  See 11.3 |complex_change|.

command		'gdefault' on	'gdefault' off
:s///		  subst. all	  subst. one
:s///g		  subst. one	  subst. all
:s///gg		  subst. all	  subst. one

*'guifont'* *'gfn'*
guifont (gfn)		string  (default "")
global
{not in Vi}
{Only available when compiled with GUI enabled}
This is a list of fonts which should be tried when starting the GUI
version of vim.  The fonts are separated with commas.  Spaces after a
comma are ignored.  To include a comma in a font name precede it with
a backslash.  Setting an option requires an extra backslash before a
space and a backslash.  See also |option_backslash|.  For example:
:set guifont=Screen15,\ 7x13,font\\,with\\,commas
will make vim try to use the font "Screen15" first, and if it fails
it will try to use "7x13" and then "font,with,commas" instead.  If
none of the fonts can be loaded, vim will try using other resource
settings (for X, it will use the Vim.font resource), and finally it
will try some builtin default which should always be there ("7x13" in
the case of X).  The font names given should be "normal" fonts.  Vim
will try to find the related bold and italic fonts.

*'guioptions'* *'go'*
guioptions (go)		string  (default "agmr")
global
{not in Vi}
{Only available when compiled with GUI enabled}
This option only has an effect in the GUI version of vim.  It is a
sequence of letters which describes what components and options of the
GUI should be used.  Valid letters are as follows:

'a'	Autoselect:  If present, then whenever VISUAL mode is started,
or the Visual area extended, vim tries to become the owner of
the windowing system's global selection.  This means that the
Visually highlighted text is available for pasting into other
applications as well as into vim itself.  When the Visual mode
ends, possibly due to an operation on the text, or when an
application wants to paste the selection, the highlighted text
is automatically yanked into the <"*> GUI selection register.
Thus the selection is still available for pasting into other
applications after the VISUAL mode has ended.
If not present, then vim won't become the owner of the
windowing system's global selection unless explicitly told to
by selecting "Cut" or "Copy" etc from the "Edit" menu (which
have not been implemented yet!).

'f'	Foreground: Don't use fork() to detatch the GUI from the shell
where it was started.  Use this for programs that wait for the
editor to finish (e.g., an e-mail program).  Altenatively you
can use "gvim -f" or ":gui -f" to start the GUI in the
foreground.  |gui_fork|

'm'	Menu bar is present when 'm' is included.
'g'	Grey menu items: Make menu items that are not active grey.  If
'g' is not included inactive menu items are not shown at all.

'r'	Right-hand scrollbar is present when 'r' is included.
'l'	Left-hand scrollbar is present when 'l' is included.
'b'	Bottom (horizontal) scrollbar is present when 'b' is included.

And yes, you may even have scrollbars on the left AND the right if
you really want to :-).  See |gui_scrollbars| for more information.

*'guipty'* *'noguipty'*
guipty			toggle	(default off)
global
{not in Vi}
{Only available when compiled with GUI enabled}
Only in the GUI: If on, an attempt is made to open a pseudo-tty for
I/O to/from shell commands.  See |gui_pty|.

*'helpfile'* *'hf'*
helpfile (hf)		string	(default (Amiga) "vim:vim_help.txt"
(MS-DOS, Win32, OS/2) "$VIM/vim_help.txt" (Unix) "/usr/local/lib/vim/vim_help.txt") global {not in Vi} Name of the help file. All help files should be placed together in one directory. Environment variables are expanded |:set_env|. For example: "$VIM/doc/vim_help.txt".  If $VIM is not set,$HOME is also
tried.  For Unix the default is adjusted at compile time to where the
help files are being installed.  See |option_backslash| about
including spaces and backslashes.

*'helpheight'* *'hh'*
helpheight (hh)		number	(default 20)
global
{not in Vi}
Minimal initial height of the help window when it is opened with the
":help" command.  The initial height of the help window is half of the
current window, or (when the 'ea' option is on) the same as other
windows.  When the height is less than 'helpheight', the height is
set to 'helpheight'.  Set to zero to disable.

*'hidden'* *'hid'* *'nohidden'* *'nohid'*
hidden (hid)		toggle	(default off)
global
{not in Vi}
When off the current buffer is unloaded when it is abandoned.  When
on the current buffer becomes hidden when starting to edit another
buffer.  If the current buffer is also displayed in another window it
does not become hidden.  The commands that move through the buffer
list make the current buffer hidden although the 'hidden' option is

*'highlight'* *'hl'*
highlight (hl)		string	(default "8b,db,es,mb,Mn,nu,rs,sr,tb,vr,ws")
global
{not in Vi}
This option can be used to set highlighting mode for various
occasions.  It is a comma separated list of character pairs.  The
first character in a pair gives the occasion, the second the mode to
use for that occasion.  The occasions are:
8	Meta & special keys listed with ":map"
d	directories in CTRL-D listing
e	error messages
m	"--More--" message
M	Mode (e.g., "-- INSERT --")
n	line number for ":number" and ":#" commands
r	return to continue message and yes/no questions
s	status lines
t	Titles for output from ":set all", ":autocmd" etc.
v	Visual mode
w	warning messages
The display modes are:
r	reverse		(termcap entry "mr" and "me")
i	italic		(termcap entry "ZH" and "ZR")
b	bold		(termcap entry "md" and "me")
s	standout	(termcap entry "so" and "se")
u	underline	(termcap entry "us" and "ue")
n	no highlighting
The default is used for occasions that are not included.
If you want to change what the display modes do, see |colors| for an
example.

*'history'* *'hi'*
history (hi)		number	(default 20)
global
{not in Vi}
A history of ":" commands, and a history of previous search patterns
are remembered.  This option decides how many entries may be stored in
each of these histories (see |cmdline_editing|).

*'hkmap'* *'hk'* *'nohkmap'* *'nohk'*
hkmap (kh)		toggle  (default off)
global
{not in Vi}
{Only available if Vim was compiled with RIGHTLEFT
defined}
When on, the keyboard is mapped for the Hebrew character set.
Normally you would use CTRL-_ in insert mode to toggle this option.
See |vim_rlh.txt|.

*'icon'* *'noicon'*
icon			toggle	(default off, on when title can be restored)
global
{not in Vi}
When on the icon of the window will be set to the name of the file
currently being edited.  Only the last part of the name is used.  Only
works if the terminal supports setting window icons (currently only
Unix xterm and iris-ansi).  When Vim was compiled with HAVE_X11
defined, the original icon will be restored if possible |X11|.

*'ignorecase'* *'ic'* *'noignorecase'* *'noic'*
ignorecase (ic)		toggle	(default off)
global
Ignore case in search patterns.  Also used when searching in the tags
file.

*'include'* *'inc'*
include (inc)		string	(default "^#[ \t]*include")
global
{not in Vi}
Pattern to be used to find an include command.  It is a search
pattern, just like for the "/" command (See 6.6, "Pattern
searches" |search_pattern|).  The default value is for C programs.
This option is used for the commands "[i", "]I", "[d", etc..  The
'isfname' option is used to recognize the file name that comes after
the matched pattern.  See |option_backslash| about including spaces
and backslashes.

*'incsearch'* *'is'* *'noincsearch'* *'nois'*
incsearch (is)		toggle	(default off)
global
{not in Vi}
While typing a search pattern, show immediately where the so far
typed pattern matches.  The matched string is highlighted.  If the
pattern is invalid or not found, nothing is shown.  The screen will
be updated often, this is only useful on fast terminals.  Note that
the match will be shown, but the cursor is not actually positioned
there.  You still need to finish the search command with <CR> to move
the cursor.

*'infercase'* *'inf'* *'noinfercase'* *'noinf'*
infercase (inf)		toggle	(default off)
local to buffer
{not in Vi}
When doing keyword completion in insert mode |ins_completion|, and
'ignorecase' is also on, the case of the match is adjusted.  If the
typed text contains a lowercase letter where the match has an upper
case letter, the completed part is made lower case.  If the typed text
has no lower case letters and the match has a lower case letter where
the typed text has an upper case letter, and there is a letter before
it, the completed part is made uppercase.

*'insertmode'* *'im'* *'noinsertmode'* *'noim'*
insertmode (im)		toggle	(default off)
global
{not in Vi}
Start the edit of a file in Insert mode.  Useful if you want to use
Vim like a modeless editor (use the cursor keys to move around, use
CTRL-O for other commands |i_CTRL-O|).

*'isfname'* *'isf'*
isfname (isf)		string	(default for MS-DOS, Win32 and OS/2:
"@,48-57,/,.,-,_,+,,,$,:,\" for AMIGA: "@,48-57,/,.,-,_,+,,,$,:"
otherwise: "@,48-57,/,.,-,_,+,,,$,:,~") global {not in Vi} The characters given by this option are included in file names and path names. File names are used for commands like "gf", "[i" and in the tags file. Besides the characters in this option characters that are defined by the C function isalpha() are also always included (this depends on the character set and "locale"). The format of this option is a list of parts, separated with commas. Each part can be a single character number or a range. A range is two character numbers with '-' in between. A character number can be a decimal number between 0 and 255 or the ASCII character itself (does not work for digits). Example: "_,-,128-140,#-43" (include '_' and '-' and the range 128 to 140 and '#' to 43) If a part starts with '^', the following character number or range will be excluded from the option. The option is interpreted from left to right. Put the excluded character after the range where it is included. To include '^' itself use it as the last character of the option or the end of a range. Example: "^a-z,#,^" (exclude 'a' to 'z', include '#' and '^') If the character is '@', all characters where isalpha() returns TRUE are included. Normally these are the characters a to z and A to Z, plus accented characters. To include '@' itself use "@-@". Examples: "@,^a-z" All alphabetic characters, excluding lower case letters. "a-z,A-Z,@-@" All letters plus the '@' character. A comma can be included by using it where a character number is expected. Example: "48-57,,,_" Digits, command and underscore. A comma can be excluded by prepending a '^'. Example: " -~,^,,9" All characters from space to '~', excluding comma, plus <Tab>. See |option_backslash| about including spaces and backslashes. *'isident'* *'isi'* isident (isi) string (default for MS-DOS, Win32 and OS/2: "@,48-57,_,128-167,224-235" otherwise: "@,48-57,_,192-255") global {not in Vi} The characters given by this option are included in identifiers. Identifiers are used in recognizing environment variables and after a match of the 'define' option. See 'isfname' for a description of the format of this option. *'iskeyword'* *'isk'* iskeyword (isk) string (default for MS-DOS and Win32: "@,48-57,_,128-167,224-235" otherwise: "@,48-57,_,192-255" but when compiled with COMPATIBLE defined: "@,48-57,_") local to buffer {not in Vi} Keywords are used in searching and recognizing with many commands: "w", "*", "[i", etc. See 'isfname' for a description of the format of this option. For C programs you could use "a-z,A-Z,48-57,_,.,-,>". For a help file it is set to all non-blank printable characters except '*', '"' and '|'. When the 'lisp' option is on the '-' character is always included. *'isprint'* *'isp'* isprint (isp) string (default for MS-DOS and Win32: "@,~-255" otherwise: "@,161-255") global {not in Vi} The characters given by this option are displayed directly on the screen. The characters from space (ascii 32) to '~' (ascii 126) are always displayed directly, even when they are not included in 'isprint' or excluded. See 'isfname' for a description of the format of this option. Non-printable characters are displayed with two characters: 0 - 31 "^@" - "^_" 32 - 126 always single characters 127 "^?" 128 - 159 "~@" - "~_" 160 - 254 "| " - "|~" 255 "~?" *'joinspaces'* *'js'* *'nojoinspaces'* *'nojs'* joinspaces (js) toggle (default on) global {not in Vi} Insert two spaces after a period with a join command. *'keywordprg'* *'kp'* keywordprg (kp) string (default "man") global {not in Vi} Program to use for the "K" command. Environment variables are expanded |:set_env|. When empty ":help" is used. See |option_backslash| about including spaces and backslashes. *'langmap'* *'lmap'* langmap (lmap) string (default "") global {not in Vi} {Only included when Vim was compiled with HAVE_LANGMAP defined (Check ":version" for "+langmap"). This option allows support for keyboards that have a mode for a special language. The idea is that when you are typing text in Insert mode your keyboard is switched in the special language mode, you get different key codes for the special characters. When in command mode the 'langmap' option takes care of translating these special characters to the original meaning of the key. This means you don't have to change the keyboard mode to be able to execute normal mode commands. Example (for greek): *greek* :set langmap=ÁA,ÂB,ØC,ÄD,ÅE,ÖF,ÃG,ÇH,ÉI,ÎJ,ÊK,ËL,ÌM,ÍN,ÏO,ÐP,QQ,ÑR,ÓS,ÔT,ÈU,ÙV,WW,×X,ÕY,ÆZ,áa,âb,øc,äd,åe,öf,ãg,çh,éi,îj,êk,ël,ìm,ín,ïo,ðp,qq,ñr,ós,ôt,èu,ùv,òw,÷x,õy,æz Example (exchanges meaning of z and y for commands): :set langmap=zy,yz,ZY,YZ The 'langmap' option is a list of parts, separated with commas. Each part can be in one of two forms: 1. A list of pairs. Each pair is a "from" character immediately followed by the "to" character. Examples: "aA", "aAbBcC". 2. A list of "from" characters, a semi-colon and a list of "to" characters. Example: "abc;ABC" Example: "aA,fgh;FGH,cCdDeE" Special characters need to be preceded with a backslash. These are ";", ',' and backslash itself. This will allow you to activate vim actions without having to switch back and forth between the languages. Your language characters will be understood as normal vim English characters (according to the langmap mappings) in the following cases: o Normal/Visual mode (commands, buffer/register names, user mappings) o Insert/Replace Mode: Register names after CTRL-R o Insert/Replace Mode: Mappings Characters entered in Command-line mode will NOT be affected by this option. Note that this option can be changed at any time allowing to switch between mappings for different languages/encodings. Use a mapping to avoid having to type it each time! *'laststatus'* *'ls'* laststatus (ls) number (default 1) global {not in Vi} The value of this option influences when the last window will have a status line: 0: never 1: only if there are at least two windows 2: always The screen looks nicer with a status line if you have several windows, but it takes another screen line. *'linebreak'* *'lbr'* *'nolinebreak'* *'nolbr'* linebreak (lbr) toggle (default off) local to window {not in Vi} If on Vim will wrap long lines at a character in 'breakat' rather than at the last character that fits on the screen. Unlike 'wrapmargin' and 'textwidth', this does not insert newline characters in the file, it only affects the way the file is displayed, not its contents. The value of 'showbreak' is used to put in front of wrapped lines. This option is not used when the 'wrap' option is off. Note that <Tab> characters after a line break are mostly not displayed correctly. *'lines'* lines number (default 24 or terminal height) global Number of lines in the display. Normally you don't need to set this. That is done automatically by the terminal initialization code. When you do set this, and Vim is unable to change the physical number of lines on the display, redisplaying may be wrong. *'lisp'* *'nolisp'* lisp toggle (default off) local to buffer {Only included when compiled with LISPINDENT enabled, ":version" says "+lispindent" instead of "-lispindent"} Lisp mode: When a return is typed in insert mode set the indent for the next line to Lisp standards (well, sort of). Also happens with "cc" or "S". 'autoindent' must also be on for this to work. The '-' character is included in keyword characters. Redefines the "=" operator to use this same indentation algorithm rather than calling an external program if 'equalprg' is empty. This option is reset when 'paste' is set. {Vi: Does it a little bit differently} *'list'* *'nolist'* list toggle (default off) local to window List mode: Show tabs as CTRL-I, show end of line with$.  Useful to
see the difference between tabs and spaces and for trailing blanks.
Note that this will also affect formatting (set with 'textwidth' or
'wrapmargin').

*'magic'* *'nomagic'*
magic			toggle	(default on)
global
Changes the special characters that can be used in search patterns.
See section "Pattern searches" |search_pattern|.

*'makeprg'* *'mp'*
makeprg (mp)		string	(default "make")
global
{not in Vi}
Program to use for the ":make" command.  See |:make_makeprg|.  This
option may contain '%' and '#' characters, which are expanded like
when used in a command line.  Environment variables are expanded
|:set_env|.  See |option_backslash| about including spaces and
backslashes.

*'maxmapdepth'* *'mmd'*
maxmapdepth (mmd)	number	(default 1000)
global
{not in Vi}
Maximum number of times a mapping is done without resulting in a
character to be used.  This normally catches endless mappings, like
":map x y" with ":map y x".  It still does not catch ":map g wg",
because the 'w' is used before the next mapping is done.  See also
|key_mapping|.

*'maxmem'* *'mm'*
maxmem (mm)		number	(default 512)
global
{not in Vi}
Maximum amount of memory (in Kbyte) to use for one buffer.  When this
limit is reached allocating extra memory for a buffer will cause
other memory to be freed.  See also 'maxmemtot'.

*'maxmemtot'* *'mmt'*
maxmemtot (mmt)		number	(default 2048, or half the amount of memory
available)
global
{not in Vi}
Maximum amount of memory (in Kbyte) to use for all buffers together.

*'modeline'* *'ml'* *'nomodeline'* *'noml'*
modeline (ml)		toggle	(default on, off when compiled with COMPATIBLE
defined)
local to buffer
*'modelines'* *'mls'*
modelines (mls)		number	(default 5)
global
{not in Vi}
If 'modeline' is on 'modelines' gives the number of lines that is
checked for set commands.  If 'modeline' is off or 'modelines' is zero
no lines are checked.  See 19.1 |modeline|.  'modeline' is reset when
'compatible' is set.

*'modified'* *'mod'* *'nomodified'* *'nomod'*
modified (mod)		toggle	(default off)
local to buffer
{not in Vi}
When on the buffer is considered to be modified.  This option is set
by every command that makes a change to the buffer.  Only the undo
command may reset it, when all changes have been undone.

*'more'* *'nomore'*
more			toggle	(default on, off when compiled with COMPATIBLE
defined)
global
{not in Vi}
Listings pause when the whole screen is filled.  Type:
<CR> or <NL>   for one more line.
<Space>        for the next page.
'd'            for down half a page.
'q' or CTRL-C  to stop the listing.
':'            to stop the listing and enter a command line.
Any other key causes the meaning of the keys to be displayed.
When this option is off there are no pauses, the listing continues
until finished.  When 'compatible' is set this option is reset.
Note: The key typed at the "more" prompt is directly obtained from the
terminal, it is not mapped and typeahead is ignored.

*'mouse'*
mouse			string	(default "", "a" for MS-DOS and Win32)
global
{not in Vi}
Enable the use of the mouse.  Only works for certain terminals
(MS-DOS, Win32 and xterm).  The mouse can be enabled for different
modes:
n	Normal mode
v	Visual mode
i	Insert mode
c	Command-line mode
h	all previous modes when editing a help file
a	all previous modes
r	for "Hit return ..." question
Normally you would enable the mouse in all four modes with:
:set mouse=a
Note: Normal copy/paste in an xterm can still be used by pressing the
shift key when the mouse is being used by Vim.  See |mouse_using|.

*'mousetime'* *'mouset'*
mousetime (mouset)	number	(default 500)
global
{not in Vi}
Only for GUI, MS-DOS, Win32 and Unix with xterm.  Defines the maximum
time in msec between two mouse clicks for the second click to be
recognized as a multi click.

*'number'* *'nu'* *'nonumber'* *'nonu'*
number (nu)		toggle	(default off)
local to window
Print the line number in front of each line.  Tip: If you don't like
wrapping lines to mix with the line numbers, set the 'showbreak'
option to eight spaces:
:set showbreak=\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \

*'paragraphs'* *'para'*
paragraphs (para)	string	(default "IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp")
global
Specifies the nroff macros that separate paragraphs.  These are pairs
of two letters (see section 6.4 |object_motions|).

*'paste'* *'nopaste'*
paste			toggle	(default off)
global
{not in Vi}
Put Vim in Paste mode.  This is useful if you want to cut or copy
some text from one window and paste it in Vim.  This will avoid
unexpected effects.  When the 'paste' option is switched on (also when
it was already on):
- mapping in Insert mode is disabled
- abbreviations are disabled
- 'textwidth' is set to 0
- 'autoindent' is reset
- 'smartindent' is reset
- 'cindent' is reset
- 'lisp' is reset
- 'revins' is reset
- 'ruler' is reset
- 'showmatch' is reset
- 'formatoptions' is used like it is empty
NOTE: When you start editing another file while the 'paste' option is
on, settings from the modelines or autocommands may change the
settings again, causing trouble when pasting text.  You might want to
set the 'paste' option again.
When the 'paste' option is reset the mentioned options are restored to
the value before the moment 'paste' was switched from off to on.
Resetting 'paste' before ever setting it does not have any effect.  If
you use this often, you could map a function key to the command ":set
invpaste^V^M".

*'patchmode'* *'pm'*
patchmode (pm)		string	(default "")
global
{not in Vi}
When non-empty the oldest version of a file is kept.  This can be used
to keep the original version of a file if you are changing files in a
source distribution.  Only the first time that a file is edited a copy
of the original file will be kept.  The name of the copy is the name
of the original file with the string in the 'patchmode' option
appended.  This option should start with a dot.  Use a string like
".org".  'backupdir' must not be empty for this to work (Detail: The
backup file is renamed to the patchmode file after the new file has
been succesfully written, that's why it must be possible to write a
backup file).  If there was no file to be backed up, an empty file is
created.

*'path'* *'pa'*
path (pa)		string	(default on Unix: ".,/usr/include,,"
on OS/2:       ".,/emx/include,,"
other systems: ".,,")
global
{not in Vi}
This is a list of directories which will be searched when using the
gf, [f, ]f, ^Wf and other commands, provided that the file being
searched for has a relative path (not starting with '/').  The
directories in the 'path' option may be relative or absolute.
- Use commas to separate directory names:
:set path=.,/usr/local/include,/usr/include
- Spaces can also be used to separate directory names (for backwards
compatibility with version 3.0).  To have a space in a directory
name, precede it with an extra backslash:
:set path=.,/dir/with\\ space
- To include a comma in a directory name precede it with an extra
backslash:
:set path=.,/dir/with\\,comma
- To search relative to the directory where the current file is use
:set path=.
- To search in the current directory use an empty string between two
commas:
:set path=,,
- A directory name may end in a ':' or '/'.
- Environment variables are expanded |:set_env|.
- Careful with '\' characters, type two to get one in the option:
:set path=.,c:\\include
Or just use '/' instead:
:set path=.,c:/include
Don't forget "." or files won't even be found in the same directory as
the file!

readonly (ro)		toggle	(default off)
local to buffer
{not in Vi}
If on, writes fail unless you use a '!'.  Protects you from
accidentally overwriting a file.  Default on when Vim is started
in view mode ("vim -v") or when the executable is called "view".
{not in Vi:}  When using the ":view" command the 'readonly' option is
set for the newly edited buffer.  When using ":w!" the 'readonly'
option is reset for the current buffer.

*'remap'* *'noremap'*
remap			toggle	(default on)
global
Allows for mappings to work recursively.  If you do not want this for
a single entry, use the :noremap[!] command.

*'report'*
report			number	(default 2)
global
Threshold for reporting number of lines changed.  When the number of
changed lines is more than 'report' a message will be given for most
":" commands.  For the ":substitute" command the number of
substitutions is used instead of the number of lines.

*'restorescreen'* *'rs'* *'norestorescreen'* *'nors'*
restorescreen (rs)	toggle	(default on)
global
{not in Vi}  {Windows 95/NT version only}
When set, the screen contents is restored when exiting Vim.  This also
happens when executing external commands.

*'revins'* *'ri'* *'norevins'* *'nori'*
revins (ri)		toggle	(default off)
global
{not in Vi}
{only when compiled with RIGHTLEFT defined}
Inserting characters in Insert mode will work backwards.  See "typing
backwards" |ins_reverse|.  This option can be toggled with the CTRL-B
command in Insert mode.  This option is reset when 'compatible' or
'paste' is set.

*'rightleft'* *'rl'* *'norightleft'* *'norl'*
rightleft (rl)		toggle	(default off)
local to window
{not in Vi}
{only when compiled with RIGHTLEFT defined}
When on, display orientation becomes right-to-left, i.e., character
that are stored in the file apear from the right to the left.  Using
this option, it is possible to edit files for languages that are
written from the right to the left such as Hebrew and Arabic.  This
option is per window, so it is possible to edit mixed files
simultaneously, or to view the same file in both ways (this is
sometimes usefull when editing Hebrew TeX--XeT files).  See
|vim_rlh.txt|.

*'ruler'* *'ru'* *'noruler'* *'noru'*
ruler (ru)		toggle	(default off)
global
{not in Vi}
Show the line and column number of the cursor position in the status
line, separated by a comma.  If there are characters in the line that
take two positions on the screen, both the "real" column and the
screen column are shown, separated with a dash.  For an empty line
"0-1" is shown.  For an empty buffer the line number will also be
zero: "0,0-1".  This option is reset when the 'paste' option is set.
If you don't want to see the ruler all the time but want to know where
you are, use "g CTRL-G" |g_CTRL-G|.

*'scroll'* *'scr'*
scroll (scr)		number	(default 'lines' / 2)
local to window
Number of lines to scroll with CTRL-U and CTRL-D commands.  Will be
set to half the number of lines in the window when the window size
changes.  If you give a count to the CTRL-U or CTRL-D command it will
be used as the new value for 'scroll'.  Reset to 'lines' / 2 with
":set scroll=0".   {difference from vi: 'scroll' gives the number of
screen lines instead of file lines, makes a difference when lines
wrap}

*'scrolljump'* *'sj'*
scrolljump (sj)		number	(default 1)
global
{not in Vi}
Minimal number of lines to scroll when the cursor gets off the
screen (e.g., with "j").  Not used for scroll commands (e.g., CTRL-E,
CTRL-D).  Useful if your terminal scrolls very slowly.

*'scrolloff'* *'so'*
scrolloff (so)		number	(default 0)
global
{not in Vi}
Minimal number of screen lines to keep above and below the cursor.
This will make some context visible around where you are working.  If
you set it to a very large value (999) the cursor line will always be
in the middle of the window (except at the start or end of the file or
when long lines wrap).

*'sections'* *'sect'*
sections (sect)		string	(default "SHNHH HUnhsh")
global
Specifies the nroff macros that separate sections.  These are pairs of
two letters (See section 6.4 |object_motions|).

*'secure'* *'nosecure'*
secure			toggle	(default off)
global
{not in Vi}
When on, ":autocmd", shell and write commands are not allowed in
".vimrc" and ".exrc" in the current directory and map commands are
displayed.  Switch it off only if you know that you will not run into
problems, or when the 'exrc' option is off.  On Unix this option is
only used if the ".vimrc" or ".exrc" is not owned by you.  This can be
dangerous if the systems allows users to do a "chown".  You better set
'secure' at the end of your ~/.vimrc then.

*'shell'* *'sh'*
shell (sh)		string	(default $SHELL or "sh", MS-DOS and Win32: "command", OS/2: "cmd") global Name of the shell to use for ! and :! commands. When changing the value also check the 'shelltype', 'shellpipe' and 'shellredir' options. It is allowed to give an argument to the command, e.g. "csh -f". See |option_backslash| about including spaces and backslashes. Environment variables are expanded |:set_env|. *'shellcmdflag'* *'shcf'* shellcmdflag (shcf) string (default: "-c", MS-DOS and Win32, when 'shell' does not contain "sh" somewhere: "/c") global {not in Vi} Flag passed to the shell to execute "!" and ":!" commands; e.g., "bash.exe -c ls" or "command.com /c dir". For the MS-DOS-like systems, the default is set according to the value of 'shell', to reduce the need to set this option by the user. It's not used for OS/2 (EMX figures this out itself). See |option_backslash| about including spaces and backslashes. See |win32_shell| for Win32. *'shellpipe'* *'sp'* shellpipe (sp) string (default ">", "| tee", "|& tee" or "2>&1| tee") global {not in Vi} String to be used to put the output of the ":make" command in the error file. See also |:make_makeprg|. See |option_backslash| about including spaces and backslashes. For the Amiga and MS-DOS the default is ">". The output is directly saved in a file and not echoed to the screen. For Unix the default it "| tee". The stdout of the compiler is saved in a file and echoed to the screen. If the 'shell' option is "csh" or "tcsh" after initializations, the default becomes "|& tee". If the 'shell' option is "sh", "ksh", "zsh" or "bash" the default becomes "2>&1| tee". This means that stderr is also included. The initialization of this option is done after reading the ".vimrc" and the other initializations, so that when the 'shell' option is set there, the 'shellpipe' option changes automatically, unless it was explicitly set before. In the future pipes may be used for filtering and this option will become obsolete (at least for Unix). *'shellquote'* *'shq'* shellquote (shq) string (default: ""; MS-DOS and Win32, when 'shell' contains "sh" somewhere: "\"") global {not in Vi} Quoting character(s) passed to the shell to execute "!" and ":!" commands. This is an empty string by default. Only known to be useful for third-party shells on MS-DOS-like systems, such as the MKS Korn Shell or bash, where it should be "\"". The default is adjusted according the value of 'shell', to reduce the need to set this option by the user. See |win32_shell| for Win32. *'shellredir'* *'srr'* shellredir (srr) string (default ">", ">&" or ">%s 2>&1") global {not in Vi} String to be used to put the output of a filter in a temporary file. See also |:!|. See |option_backslash| about including spaces and backslashes. The name of the temporary file can be represented by "%s" if necessary (the file name is appended automatically if no %s appears in the value of this option). The default is ">". For Unix, if the 'shell' option is "csh", "tcsh" or "zsh" during initializations, the default becomes ">&". If the 'shell' option is "sh", "ksh" or "bash" the default becomes ">%s 2>&1". This means that stderr is also included. The initialization of this option is done after reading the ".vimrc" and the other initializations, so that when the 'shell' option is set there, the 'shellredir' option changes automatically unless it was explicitly set before. In the future pipes may be used for filtering and this option will become obsolete (at least for Unix). *'shelltype'* *'st'* shelltype (st) number (default 0) global {not in Vi} On the Amiga this option influences the way how the commands work which use a shell. 0 and 1: always use the shell 2 and 3: use the shell only to filter lines 4 and 5: use shell only for ':sh' command When not using the shell, the command is executed directly. 0 and 2: use "shell 'shellcmdflag' cmd" to start external commands 1 and 3: use "shell cmd" to start external commands *'shiftround'* *'sr'* *'noshiftround'* *'nosr'* shiftround (sr) toggle (default off) global {not in Vi} Round indent to multiple of 'shiftwidth'. Applies to > and < commands. CTRL-T and CTRL-D in Insert mode always round the indent to a multiple of 'shiftwidth' (this is vi compatible). *'shiftwidth'* *'sw'* shiftwidth (sw) number (default 8) local to buffer Number of spaces to use for each step of (auto)indent. *'shortmess'* *'shm'* shortmess (shm) string (default "") global {not in Vi} This option helps to avoid all the "Hit return" messages caused by file messages, for example with CTRL-G, and to avoid some other messages. It is a list of flags: flag meaning when present l use "999L, 888C" instead of "999 lines, 888 characters" m use "[+]" instead of "[Modified]" r use "[RO]" instead of "[readonly]" x use "[tx]" instead of "[textmode]" and "[notx]" instead of "[notextmode]" f use "(3 of 5)" instead of "(file 3 of 5)" i use "[noeol]" instead of "[Incomplete last line]" n use "[New]" instead of "[New File]" w use "[w]" instead of "written" for file write message. a all of the above abbreviations o overwrite message for writing a file with subsequent message for reading a file (useful for ":wn" or when 'autowrite' on) W don't give "written" or "[w]" when writing a file s don't give "search hit BOTTOM, continuing at TOP" or "search hit TOP, continuing at BOTTOM" messages t trunctate file message at the start if it is too long to fit on the command line, "<" will appear in the left most column. This gives you the opportunity to avoid that a change between buffers requires you to hit return, but still gives as useful a message as possible for the space available. To get the whole message that you would have got with 'shm' empty, use ":file!" Useful values: shm= -- No abbreviation of message. shm=a -- Abbreviation, but no loss of information. shm=at -- Abbreviation, and truncate message when necessary. *'shortname'* *'sn'* *'noshortname'* *'nosn'* shortname (sn) toggle (default off) local to buffer {not in Vi} Filenames are assumed to be 8 characters plus one extension of 3 characters. Multiple dots in file names are not allowed. When this option is on, dots in filenames are replaced with underscores when adding an extension (".~" or ".swp"). This option is not available for MS-DOS and Win32, because then it would always be on. This option is useful when editing files on an MS-DOS compatible filesystem, e.g., messydos or crossdos. *'showbreak'* *'sbr'* showbreak (sbr) string (default "") global {not in Vi} String to put at the start of lines that have been wrapped. Useful values are "> " or "+++ ". Only printable characters are allowed, excluding <Tab> and comma (in a future version the comma might be used to separate the part that is shown at the end and at the start of a line). *'showcmd'* *'sc'* *'noshowcmd'* *'nosc'* showcmd (sc) toggle (default on, off for Unix) global {not in Vi} Show (partial) command in status line. Set this option off if your terminal is slow. *'showmatch'* *'sm'* *'noshowmatch'* *'nosm'* showmatch (sm) toggle (default off) global When a bracket is inserted, briefly jump to the matching one. The jump is only done if the match can be seen on the screen. A Beep is given if there is no match (no matter if the match can be seen or not). This option is reset when the 'paste' option is set. When the 'm' flag is not included in 'cpoptions', typing a character will immediately move the cursor back to where it belongs. *'showmode'* *'smd'* *'noshowmode'* *'nosmd'* showmode (smd) toggle (default on, off when compiled with COMPATIBLE defined) global If in Insert, Replace or Visual mode put a message on the last line. Use the 'M' flag in 'highlight' to set the type of highlighting for this message. *'sidescroll'* *'ss'* sidescroll (ss) number (default 0) global {not in Vi} The minimal number of columns to scroll horizontally. Used only when the 'wrap' option is off and the cursor is moved off of the screen. When it is zero the cursor will be put in the middle of the screen. When using a slow terminal set it to a large number or 0. When using a fast terminal use a small number or 1. Not used for "zh" and "zl" commands. *'smartcase'* *'scs'* *'nosmartcase'* *'noscs'* smartcase (scs) toggle (default off) global {not in Vi} Override the 'ignorecase' option if the search pattern contains upper case characters. Only used when the search pattern is typed and 'ignorecase' option is on. Used for the commands "/", "?", "n", "N", ":g" and ":s". Not used for "*", "#", "gd", tag search, etc.. *'smartindent'* *'si'* *'nosmartindent'* *'nosi'* smartindent (si) toggle (default off) local to buffer {not in Vi} {Only included when compiled with SMARTINDENT defined, check with ":version"} Do smart autoindenting when starting a new line. Works best for C programs, but can also be used for other languages. 'cindent' does something like this, works better in most cases, but is more strict, see |C_indenting|. When 'cindent' is on setting 'si' has no effect. Normally 'autoindent' should also be on when using 'smartindent'. An indent is automatically inserted: - After a line ending in '{'. - After a line starting with a keyword from 'cinwords'. - Before a line starting with '}' (only with the "O" command). When typing '}' as the first character in a new line, that line is given the same indent as the matching '{'. When typing '#' as the first character in a new line, the indent for that line is removed, the '#' is put in the first column. The indent is restored for the next line. If you don't want this, use this mapping: ":inoremap # X^H#", where ^H is entered with CTRL-V CTRL-H. When using the ">>" command, lines starting with '#' are not shifted right. 'smartindent' is reset when the 'paste' option is set. *'smarttab'* *'sta'* *'nosmarttab'* *'nosta'* smarttab (sta) toggle (default off) global {not in Vi} When on, a <Tab> in front of a line inserts 'shiftwidth' positions, 'tabstop' in other places. When off a <Tab> always inserts 'tabstop' positions, 'shiftwidth' is only used for ">>" and the like. See also section 4.3.4 |ins_expandtab|. *'splitbelow'* *'sb'* *'nosplitbelow'* *'nosb'* splitbelow (sb) toggle (default off) global {not in Vi} When on, spliting a window will put the new window below the current one. *'startofline'* *'sol'* *'nostartofline'* *'nosol'* startofline (sol) toggle (default on) global {not in Vi} When on the commands listed below move the cursor to the first blank of the line. When off the cursor is kept in the same column (if possible). This applies to the commands: CTRL-D, CTRL-U, CTRL-B, CTRL-F, "G", "H", "M", "L", , and to the commands "d", "<<" and ">>" with a linewise operator and with "%" with a count. This option is set when the 'compatible' option is set. *'suffixes'* *'su'* suffixes (su) string (default ".bak,~,.o,.h,.info,.swp") global {not in Vi} Files with these suffixes are ignored when multiple files match a wildcard. See |suffixes|. Commas can be used to separate the suffixes. Spaces after the comma are ignored. A dot is also seen as the start of a suffix. To include a dot or comma in a suffix, precede it with a backslash (see |option_backslash| about including spaces and backslashes). *'swapsync'* *'sws'* swapsync (sws) string (default "fsync") global {not in Vi} When this option is not empty a swap file is synced to disk after writing to it. This takes some time, especially on busy unix systems. When this option is empty parts of the swap file may be in memory and not written to disk. When the system crashes you may lose more work. On Unix the system does a sync now and then without Vim asking for it, so the disadvantage of setting this option off is small. On some systems the swap file will not be written at all. For a unix system setting it to "sync" will use the sync() call instead of the default fsync(), which may work better on some systems. *'tabstop'* *'ts'* tabstop (ts) number (default 8) local to buffer Number of spaces that a <Tab> in the file counts for. (See also ":retab" command in 11.3 |:retab|). *'taglength'* *'tl'* taglength (tl) number (default 0) global If non-zero, tags are significant up to this number of characters. *'tagrelative'* *'tr'* *'notagrelative'* *'notr'* tagrelative (tr) toggle (default on, off when compiled with COMPATIBLE defined) global {not in Vi} If on and using a tag file in another directory, file names in that tag file are relative to the directory where the tag file is. When the 'compatible' option is set, this option is reset. *'tags'* *'tag'* tags (tag) string (default "./tags,tags", when compiled with Emacs tags enabled: "./tags,./TAGS,tags,TAGS") global Filenames for the tag command, separated by spaces or commas. To include a space or comma in a filename, precede it with a backslash (see |option_backslash| about including spaces and backslashes). When a file name starts with "./", the '.' is replaced with the path of the current file. Environment variables are expanded |:set_env|. Also see |tags_option|. When Vim was compiled with EMACS_TAGS defined Emacs-style tag files are also supported. They are automatically recognized. The default value becomes "./tags,./TAGS,tags,TAGS". If ":version" shows "+emacs_tags" then the Emacs tags support is included. {Vi: default is "tags /usr/lib/tags"} *'term'* term string (default is$TERM, if that fails:
on Unix: "ansi"
on Amiga: "amiga"
on MS-DOS: "pcterm"
on OS/2: "os2ansi"
on Win 32: "win32")
global
Name of the terminal.  Used for choosing the terminal control
characters.  Environment variables are expanded |:set_env|.
For example:
:set term=$TERM See |termcap|. *'terse'* *'noterse'* terse toggle (default off) global {not in Vi} When set: Add 's' flag to 'shortmess' option (this makes the message for a search that hits the start or end of the file not being displayed). When reset: Remove 's' flag from 'shortmess' option. {Vi shortens a lot of messages} *'textauto'* *'ta'* *'notextauto'* *'nota'* textauto (ta) toggle (default on, off when compiled with COMPATIBLE defined) global {not in Vi} When starting to edit a file a check is done for the line separator. If all lines end in <CR><NL> 'textmode' is set, otherwise 'textmode' is reset. When reading a file, the same is done, but this happens like 'textmode' has been set appropriately for that file only, the option is not changed. See |textmode_io|. *'textmode'* *'tx'* *'notextmode'* *'notx'* textmode (tx) toggle (MS-DOS, Win32 and OS/2: default on, others: default off) local to buffer {not in Vi} When off, <NL> separates lines. When on, <CR><NL> separates lines and CTRL-Z at end of file is ignored. Only used when reading and writing files. Set automatically when starting to edit a file and 'textauto' is on. See |textmode_io|. *'textwidth'* *'tw'* textwidth (tw) number (default 0) local to buffer {not in Vi} Maximum width of text that is being inserted. A longer line will be broken after white space to get this width. A zero value disables this. 'textwidth' is set to 0 when the 'paste' option is set. When 'textwidth' is zero, 'wrapmargin' may be used. See also 'formatoptions' and |ins_textwidth|. *'tildeop'* *'top'* *'notildeop'* *'notop'* tildeop (top) toggle (default off) global {not in Vi} When on: The tilde command "~" behaves like an operator. *'timeout'* *'to'* *'notimeout'* *'noto'* timeout (to) toggle (default on) global *'ttimeout'* *'nottimeout'* ttimeout toggle (default off) global {not in Vi} These two options together determine the behaviour when part of a mapped key sequence or keyboard code has been received: timeout ttimeout action off off no time out on on or off time out on :mappings and key codes off on time out on key codes If there is no time out, Vim will wait until either the complete mapping or key sequence has been received, or it is clear that there is no mapping or key sequence for the received characters. For example: if you have mapped "vl" and Vim has received 'v', the next character is needed to see if the 'v' is followed by an 'l'. With a time out Vim will wait for about 1 second for the next character to arrive. After that the already received characters are interpreted as single characters. The waiting time can be changed with the 'timeoutlen' option. On slow terminals or very busy systems time out may cause malfunctioning cursor keys. If both options are off, Vim waits forever after an entered <Esc> if there are key codes that start with <Esc>. You will have to type <Esc> twice. If you do not have problems with key codes, but would like to have :mapped key sequences not time out in 1 second, set the ttimeout option and reset the timeout option. *'timeoutlen'* *'tm'* timeoutlen (tm) number (default 1000) global {not in all versions of Vi} *'ttimeoutlen'* *'ttm'* ttimeoutlen (ttm) number (default -1) global {not in Vi} The time in milliseconds that is waited for a key code or mapped key sequence to complete. Normally only 'timeoutlen' is used and 'ttimeoutlen' is -1. When a different timeout value for key codes is desired set 'ttimeoutlen' to a non-negative number. ttimeoutlen mapping delay key code delay < 0 'timeoutlen' 'timeoutlen' >= 0 'timeoutlen' 'ttimeoutlen' The timeout only happens when the 'timeout' and 'ttimeout' options tell so. A useful setting would be :set timeout timeoutlen=3000 ttimeoutlen=100 (time out on mapping after three seconds, time out on key codes after a tenth of a second). *'title'* *'notitle'* title toggle (default off, on when title can be restored) global {not in Vi} When on the title of the window will be set to "VIM - filename", where filename is the name of the file currently being edited. Only works if the terminal supports setting window titles (currently Amiga console, Unix xterm and iris-ansi). *X11* When Vim was compiled with HAVE_X11 defined, the original title will be restored if possible. The output of ":version" will include "+X11" when HAVE_X11 was defined, otherwise it will be "-X11". This also works for the icon name |'icon'|. If the title cannot be restored, it is set to "Thanks for flying Vim". You will have to restore the title outside of Vim then. When using an xterm from a remote machine you can use this command: rsh machine_name xterm -display$DISPLAY &
then the WINDOWID environment variable should be inherited and the
title of the window should change back to what it should be after
exiting Vim (rather than using the "Thanks..." message).

*'titlelen'*
titlelen		number	(default 85)
global
{not in Vi}
Gives the percentage of 'columns' to use for the length of the window
title.  When the title is longer, only the end of the path name is
shown.  A '>' character is used to indicate this.  Using a percentage
makes this adapt to the width of the window.  But it won't work
perfectly, because the actual number of characters available also
depends on the font used and other things in the title bar.  When
'titlelen' is zero the full path is used.  Otherwise, values from 1 to
30000 can be used.

*'ttybuiltin'* *'tbi'* *'nottybuiltin'* *'notbi'*
ttybuiltin (tbi)	toggle	(default on)
global
{not in Vi}
When on, the builtin termcaps are searched before the external ones.
When off the builtin termcaps are searched after the external ones.
When this option is changed, you should set the 'term' option next for
the change to take effect, for example:
:set notbi term=$TERM See also |termcap|. *'ttyfast'* *'tf'* *'nottyfast'* *'notf'* ttyfast (tf) toggle (default off, on when 'term' is xterm, hpterm, sun-cmd, scren, dtterm or iris-ansi) global {not in Vi} Indicates a fast terminal connection. More characters will be sent to the screen for redrawing, instead of using insert/delete line commands. Improves smoothness of redrawing when there are multiple windows and the terminal does not support a scrolling region. Also enables the extra writing of characters at the end of each screen line for lines that wrap. This helps when using copy/paste with the mouse in an xterm and other terminals. *'ttyscroll'* *'tsl'* ttyscroll (tsl) number (default 999) global Maximum number of lines to scroll the screen. If there are more lines to scroll the window is redrawn. For terminals where scrolling is very slow and redrawing is not slow this can be set to a small number, e.g., 3, to speed up displaying. *'ttytype'* *'tty'* ttytype (tty) string (default from$TERM)
global
Alias for 'term', see above.

*'undolevels'* *'ul'*
undolevels (ul)		number	(default 100, 1000 for Unix and OS/2, 0 when
compiled with COMPATIBLE defined)
global
{not in Vi}
Maximum number of changes that can be undone.  Set to 0 for Vi
compatibility: one level of undo and 'u' undoes itself.  Set to a
negative number for no undo at all (saves memory).

*'updatecount'* *'uc'*
updatecount (uc)	number	(default 200, 0 when compiled with COMPATIBLE
defined)
global
{not in Vi}
After typing this many characters the swap file will be written to
disk.  When zero no swap file will be created at all (see chapter on
recovery |crash_recovery|).  'updatecount' is set to zero by starting
Vim with the "-n" option, see |starting|.  When editing in readonly
mode this option will be initialized to 10000.  Also see |'swapsync'|.

*'updatetime'* *'ut'*
updatetime (ut)		number	(default 4000)
global
{not in Vi}
If this many milliseconds nothing is typed the swap file will be
written to disk (see chapter on recovery |crash_recovery|).

*'viminfo'* *'vi'*
viminfo (vi)		string	(default "")
global
{not in Vi}
{only included when Vim was compiled with VIMINFO
defined, use ":version" to check this}
When non-empty, the viminfo file is read upon startup and written
when exiting Vim (see |viminfo_file|).  The string should be a comma
separated list of parameters, each consisting of a single character
identifying the particular parameter, followed by a number or string
which specifies the value of that parameter.  If a particular
character is left out, then the default value is used for that
parameter.  The following is a list characters and their meanings.
char	 value
'	Maximum number of previously edited files for which
the marks are remembered.  This parameter must always
be included when 'viminfo' is non-empty.
f	Whether file marks need to be stored.  If zero, file
marks ('0 to '9, 'A to 'Z) are not stored.  When not
present or when non-zero, they are all stored.  '0 is
used for the current cursor position (when exiting or
when doing ":wviminfo").
r	Removable media.  The argument is a string (up to the
next ',').  This parameter can be given several times.
Each specifies the start of a path for which no marks
will be stored.  This is to avoid removable media.
For MS-DOS you could use "ra:,rb:", for Amiga
"rdf0:,rdf1:,rdf2:".  Case is ignored.  Maximum length
is 50 characters.
"	Maximum number of lines saved for each register.  If
zero then registers are not saved.  If no number given
all lines are saved.  Dont forget to put a backslash
before the ", otherwise it will be recognized as the
start of a comment!
:	Maximum number of items in the command line history to
be saved.  Default: value of 'history'.
/	Maximum number of items in the search pattern history
to be saved.  If non-zero, then the previous search
and substitute patterns are also saved.  Default:
value of 'history'.
Example:
:set viminfo='50,\"1000,:0
means that marks will be remembered for the last 50 files you edited,
contents of registers (up to 1000 lines each) will be remembered,
command line history will not be saved, and since '/' is not
specified, the default will be used, that is, save all of the search
history, and also the previous search and substitute patterns.

*'visualbell'* *'vb'* *'novisualbell'* *'novb'* *beep*
visualbell (vb)		toggle	(default off)
global
{not in Vi}
Use visual bell instead of beeping.  The terminal code to display the
visual bell is given with 't_vb'.  When no beep of flash is wanted,
use ":set vb t_vb=".  Does not work on the Amiga, you always get a
screen flash.  Also see 'errorbells'.

*'warn'* *'nowarn'*
warn			toggle	(default on)
global
Give a warning message when a shell command is used while the buffer
has been changed.

*'weirdinvert'* *'wiv'* *'noweirdinvert'* *'nowiv'*
weirdinvert (wiv)	toggle	(default off)
global
{not in Vi}
Set this option for terminals that have a weird inversion method.
Makes the start/end invert code outputted before every character.
Slows down terminal I/O a lot, but it makes Visual mode work.

*'whichwrap'* *'ww'*
whichwrap (ww)		string	(default "b,s", "" when compiled with
COMPATIBLE defined)
global
{not in Vi}
Allow specified keys that move the cursor left/right to wrap to the
previous/next line when the cursor is on the first/last character in
the line.  Concatenate characters to allow this for these keys:
char   key	  mode
b    <BS>	 Normal and Visual
s    <Space>	 Normal and Visual
h    "h"	 Normal and Visual
l    "l"	 Normal and Visual
<    <Left>	 Normal and Visual
>    <Right> 	 Normal and Visual
[    <Left>	 Insert and Replace
]    <Right>	 Insert and Replace
For example:
":set ww=<,>,[,]"
allows wrap only when cursor keys are used.
When the movement keys are used in combination with a delete or change
operator, the newline also counts for a character.  This makes "3h"
different from "3dh" when the cursor crosses the end of a line.  This
is also true for "x" and "X", because they do the same as "dl" and
"dh".  If you use this, you may also want to use the mapping
":map <BS> X" to make backspace delete the character in front of the
cursor.  When 'compatible' is set, 'whichwrap' is set to "".

*'wildchar'* *'wc'*
wildchar (wc)		number	(default <Tab>, CTRL-E when compiled with
COMPATIBLE defined)
global
{not in Vi}
Character you have to type to start wildcard expansion in the
command line.  CTRL-E is used when the 'compatible' option is set.
The character is not recognized when used inside a macro.  Although
'wc' is a number option, you can set it to a special key: ":set
wc=<Esc>".

*'winheight'* *'wh'*
winheight (wh)		number	(default 0)
global
{not in Vi}
Minimal number of lines for the current window.  If the current
window is smaller, its size is increased, at the cost of the height
of other windows.  Set it to 999 to make the current window always
fill the screen.  Set it to a small number for normal editing.  The
height is not adjusted after one of the commands to change the
height of the current window.

*'wrap'* *'nowrap'*
wrap			toggle	(default on)
local to window
{not in Vi}
When on, lines longer than the width of the window will wrap and
displaying continues on the next line.  When off lines will not wrap
and only part of long lines will be displayed.  When the cursor is
moved to a part that is not shown, the screen will scroll horizontally
(also see 'sidescroll' option and |wrap_off|).  If you want to break
long lines, see 'textwidth'.

*'wrapmargin'* *'wm'*
wrapmargin (wm)		number	(default 0)
local to buffer
Number of characters from the right window border where wrapping
starts.  When typing text beyond this limit, a newline will be
inserted and inserting continues on the next line.  When 'textwidth'
is non-zero, this option is not used.  See also 'formatoptions' and
|ins_textwidth|.  {Vi: works differently and less useful}

*'wrapscan'* *'ws'* *'nowrapscan'* *'nows'*
wrapscan (ws)		toggle	(default on)
global
Searches wrap around the end of the file.

*'writeany'* *'wa'* *'nowriteany'* *'nowa'*
writeany (wa)		toggle	(default off)
global
Allows writing to any file with no need for "!" override.

*'writebackup'* *'wb'* *'nowritebackup'* *'nowb'*
writebackup (wb)	toggle	(default on, off when compiled with WRITEBACKUP
not defined or COMPATIBLE defined)
global
{not in Vi}
Make a backup before overwriting a file.  The backup is removed after
the file was successfully written, unless the 'backup' option is
also on.  Reset this option if your file system is almost full.  See
the table in section 5.4 for another explanation |backup_table|.

*'writedelay'* *'wd'*
writedelay (wd)		number	(default 0)
global
{not in Vi}
The number of microseconds to wait for each character sent to the
screen.  When non-zero, characters are sent to the terminal one by
one.  For MS-DOS pcterm this does not work.  For debugging purposes.

20. Terminal information				*terminal_info*
========================

Vim uses information about the terminal you are using to fill the screen and
recognize what keys you hit.  If this information is not correct the screen
may be messed up or keys may not be recognized.  The actions which have to be
performed on the screen are accomplished by outputting a string of
characters.  Special keys produce a string of characters.  These strings are
stored in the terminal options, see section 20.2 |terminal_options|.

20.1 Startup						*startup_terminal*

When Vim is started a default terminal type is assumed.  For the Amiga this is
a standard CLI window, for MS-DOS the pc terminal, for Unix an ansi terminal.
A few other terminal types are always available, see below |builtin_terms|.

You can give the terminal name with the '-T' Vim argument.  If it is not given
Vim will try to get the name from the TERM environment variable.

*termcap* *terminfo*
On Unix the terminfo database or termcap file is used.  This is referred to as
"termcap" in all the documentation.  At compile time, when running configure,
the choice whether to use terminfo or termcap is done automatically.  When
running Vim the output of ":version" will show "+terminfo" if terminfo is
used.  If terminfo is not used "-terminfo" is shown.

On non-Unix systems a termcap is only available if Vim was compiled with
TERMCAP defined.

*builtin_terms*
Which builtin terminals are available depends on a few defines in feature.h,
which needs to be set at compile time:
define		output of ":version"	terminals builtin
NO_BUILTIN_TCAPS	-builtin_terms		none
SOME_BUILTIN_TCAPS	+builtin_terms		most common ones (default)
ALL_BUILTIN_TCAPS	++builtin_terms		all available

You can see a list of available builtin terminals with ":set term=xxx".

If the termcap code is included Vim will try to get the strings for the
terminal you are using from the termcap file and the builtin termcaps.  Both
are always used, if an entry for the terminal you are using is present.  Which
one is used first depends on the 'ttybuiltin' option:

'ttybuiltin' on		1: builtin termcap	2: external termcap
'ttybuiltin' off	1: external termcap	2: builtin termcap

If an option is missing in one of them, it will be obtained from the other
one.  If an option is present in both, the one first encountered is used.

Which external termcap file is used varies from system to system and may
depend on the environment variables "TERMCAP" and "TERMPATH".  See "man
tgetent".

For normal editing the terminal will be put into "raw" mode.  The strings
defined with 't_ti' and 't_ks' will be sent to the terminal.  Normally this
puts the terminal in a state where the termcap codes are valid and activates
the cursor and function keys.  When Vim exits the terminal will be put back
into the mode it was before Vim started.  The strings defined with 't_te' and
't_ke' will be sent to the terminal.  On the Amiga with commands that execute
an external command (e.g., "!!") the terminal will be put into Normal mode for
a moment.  This means that you can stop the output to the screen by hitting a
printing key.  Output resumes when you hit <BS>.

Some termcap entries are wrong in the sense that after sending 't_ks' the
cursor keys send codes different from the codes defined in the termcap.  To
avoid this you can set 't_ks' (and 't_ke') to empty strings.  This must be
done during initialization (see 3.4 |initialization|), otherwise its too late.

Some termcap entries assume that the highest bit is always reset.  For
example: The cursor-up entry for the amiga could be ":ku=\EA:".  But the Amiga
really sends "\233A".  This works fine if the highest bit is reset, e.g., when
using an Amiga over a serial line.  If the cursor keys don't work, try the
entry ":ku=\233A:".

Some termcap entries have the entry ":ku=\E[A:".  But the Amiga really sends
"\233A".  On output "\E[" and "\233" are often equivalent, on input they
aren't.  You will have to change the termcap entry, or change the key code with
the :set command to fix this.

Many cursor key codes start with an <Esc>.  Vim must find out if this a single
hit of the <Esc> key or the start of a cursor key sequence.  It waits for a
next character to arrive.  If it does not arrive within one second a single
<Esc> is assumed.  On very slow systems this may fail, causing cursor keys not
to work sometimes.  If you discover this problem reset the 'timeout' option.
Vim will wait for the next character to arrive after an <Esc>.  If you want to
enter a single <Esc> you must type it twice.  Resetting the 'esckeys' option
avoids this problems in Insert mode, but you lose the possibility to use
cursor and function keys in Insert mode.

On the Amiga the recognition of window resizing is activated only when the
terminal name is "amiga" or "builtin_amiga".

Some terminals have confusing codes for the cursor keys.  The televideo 925 is
such a terminal.  It sends a CTRL-H for cursor-left.  This would make it
impossible to distinguish a backspace and cursor-left.  To avoid this problem
CTRL-H is never recognized as cursor-left.

*vt100_cursor_keys* *xterm_cursor_keys*
Other terminals (e.g., vt100 and xterm) have cursor keys that send <Esc>OA,
<Esc>OB, etc.  Unfortunately these are valid commands in insert mode: Stop
insert, Open a new line above the new one, start inserting 'A', 'B', etc.
Instead of performing these commands Vim will recognize this key sequence as a
cursor key movement.  To avoid this you could use these settings:
:set notimeout		" don't timeout on mappings
:set ttimeout		" do timeout on terminal key codes
:set timeoutlen=100	" timemout in 100 msec
This requires the keys to be hit withing 100msec.  When you type you normally
are not that fast.  The cursor key codes arrive within 100 msec, so they are
still recognized.

The default termcap entry for xterm on sun and other platforms does not
contain the entry for scroll regions.  Add ":cs=\E[%i%d;%dr:" to the xterm
entry in /etc/termcap and everything should work.

*xterm_end_home_keys*
On some systems (at least on FreeBSD with X386 3.1.2) the codes that the <End>
and <Home> keys send contain a <Nul> character.  To make these keys send the
proper key code, add these lines to your ~/.Xdefaults file:

*VT100.Translations:		#override \n\
<Key>Home: string("0x1b") string("[7~") \n\
<Key>End: string("0x1b") string("[8~")

20.2 Terminal options					*terminal_options*

The terminal options can be set just like normal options.  But they are not
shown with the ":set all" command.  Instead use ":set termcap".

It is always possible to change individual strings by setting the
appropriate option.  For example:

:set t_ce=^V^[[K	(CTRL-V, <Esc>, [, K)

{Vi: no terminal options.  You have to exit Vi, edit the termcap entry and
try again}

The options are listed below.  The associated termcap code is always equal to
the last two characters of the option name.  Two termcap codes are required:
Cursor positioning and clear screen.

OUTPUT CODES
option	meaning

t_AL	add number of blank lines			*t_AL* *'t_AL'*
t_al	add new blank line				*t_al* *'t_al'*
t_cd	clear to end of screen				*t_cd* *'t_cd'*
t_ce	clear to end of line				*t_ce* *'t_ce'*
t_cl	clear screen (required!)			*t_cl* *'t_cl'*
t_cm	cursor motion (required!)			*t_cm* *'t_cm'*
t_CS	if non-empty, cursor relative to scroll region	*t_CS* *'t_CS'*
t_cs	define scrolling region				*t_cs* *'t_cs'*
t_da	if non-empty, lines from above scroll down	*t_da* *'t_da'*
t_db	if non-empty, lines from below scroll up	*t_db* *'t_db'*
t_DL	delete number of lines				*t_DL* *'t_DL'*
t_dl	delete line					*t_dl* *'t_dl'*
t_ke	out of "keypad transmit" mode			*t_ke* *'t_ke'*
t_ks	put terminal in "keypad transmit" mode		*t_ks* *'t_ks'*
t_md	bold mode					*t_md* *'t_md'*
t_me	Normal mode (undoes t_mr and t_md)		*t_me* *'t_me'*
t_mr	reverse (invert) mode				*t_mr* *'t_mr'*
*t_ms* *'t_ms'*
t_ms	if non-empty, cursor can be moved in standout/inverse mode
t_RI	cursor number of chars right			*t_RI* *'t_RI'*
t_se	standout end					*t_se* *'t_se'*
t_so	standout mode					*t_so* *'t_so'*
t_sr	scroll reverse (backward)			*t_sr* *'t_sr'*
t_te	out of "termcap" mode				*t_te* *'t_te'*
t_ti	put terminal in "termcap" mode			*t_ti* *'t_ti'*
t_ue	underline end					*t_ue* *'t_ue'*
t_us	underline mode					*t_us* *'t_us'*
t_vb	visual bell					*t_vb* *'t_vb'*
t_ve	cursor visible					*t_ve* *'t_ve'*
t_vi	cursor invisible				*t_vi* *'t_vi'*
t_vs	cursor very visible				*t_vs* *'t_vs'*
t_ZH	italics mode					*t_ZH* *'t_ZH'*
t_ZR	italics end					*t_ZR* *'t_ZR'*

KEY CODES
Note: Use the <> form if possible

option	name		meaning

t_ku	<Up>		arrow up			*t_ku* *'t_ku'*
t_kd	<Down>		arrow down			*t_kd* *'t_kd'*
t_kr	<Right>		arrow right			*t_kr* *'t_kr'*
t_kl	<Left>		arrow left			*t_kl* *'t_kl'*
<S-Up>		shift arrow up
<S-Down>	shift arrow down
t_%i	<S-Right>	shift arrow right		*t_%i* *'t_%i'*
t_#4	<S-Left>	shift arrow left		*t_#4* *'t_#4'*
t_k1	<F1>		function key 1			*t_k1* *'t_k1'*
t_k2	<F2>		function key 2 			*t_k2* *'t_k2'*
t_k3	<F3>		function key 3 			*t_k3* *'t_k3'*
t_k4	<F4>		function key 4 			*t_k4* *'t_k4'*
t_k5	<F5>		function key 5 			*t_k5* *'t_k5'*
t_k6	<F6>		function key 6 			*t_k6* *'t_k6'*
t_k7	<F7>		function key 7 			*t_k7* *'t_k7'*
t_k8	<F8>		function key 8 			*t_k8* *'t_k8'*
t_k9	<F9>		function key 9 			*t_k9* *'t_k9'*
t_k;	<F10>		function key 10 		*t_k;* *'t_k;'*
t_F1	<F11>		function key 11 		*t_F1* *'t_F1'*
t_F2	<F12>		function key 12 		*t_F2* *'t_F2'*
<S-F1)		shifted function key 1
<S-F2>		shifted function key 2
<S-F3>		shifted function key 3
<S-F4>		shifted function key 4
<S-F5>		shifted function key 5
<S-F6>		shifted function key 6
<S-F7>		shifted function key 7
<S-F8>		shifted function key 8
<S-F9>		shifted function key 9
<S-F10>		shifted function key 10
<S-F11>		shifted function key 11
<S-F12>		shifted function key 12
t_%1	<Help>		help key			*t_%1* *'t_%1'*
t_&8	<Undo>		undo key			*t_&8* *'t_&8'*
t_kI	<Insert>	insert key			*t_kI* *'t_kI'*
t_kD	<Delete>	delete key			*t_kD* *'t_kD'*
t_kb	<BS>		backspace key			*t_kb* *'t_kb'*
t_kh	<Home>		home key			*t_kh* *'t_kh'*
t_@7	<End>		end key				*t_@7* *'t_@7'*
t_kP	<PageUp>	page-up key			*t_kP* *'t_kP'*
t_kN	<PageDown>	page-down key			*t_kN* *'t_kN'*
t_K1	<kHome>		keypad home key			*t_K1* *'t_K1'*
t_K4	<kEnd>		keypad end key			*t_K4* *'t_K4'*
t_K3	<kPageUp>	keypad page-up key		*t_K3* *'t_K3'*
t_K5	<kPageDown>	keypad page-down key		*t_K5* *'t_K5'*

Note about t_so and t_mr: When the termcap entry "so" is not present the
entry for "mr" is used.  And vice versa.  The same is done for "se" and "me".
If your terminal supports both inversion and standout mode, you can see two
different modes.  If you terminal supports only one of the modes, both will
look the same.

If inversion or other highlighting does not work correctly, try setting the
'weirdinvert' option.  This makes the start-highlight or end-highlight termcap
code to be outputted before every character.  This slows down terminal I/O a
lot, but it makes inversion work on some terminals.

Some termcaps do not include an entry for 'cs' (scroll region), although the
terminal does support it.  For example: xterm on a sun.  You can use the
builtin_xterm or define t_cs yourself.  For example:

:set t_cs=^V^[[%i%d;%dr

Where ^V is CTRL-V and ^[ is <Esc>.

Unfortunately it is not possible to deduct from the termcap how cursor
positioning should be done when using a scrolling region: Relative to the
beginning of the screen or relative to the beginning of the scrolling region.
Most terminals use the first method.  A known exception is the MS-DOS console
(pcterm).  The 't_CS' option should be set to any string when cursor
positioning is relative to the start of the scrolling region.  It should be
set to an empty string otherwise.  It is default "yes" when 'term' is
"pcterm".

Note for xterm users: The shifted cursor keys normally don't work.  You can
make them work with the xmodmap command and some mappings in Vim.

Give these commands in the xterm:
xmodmap -e "keysym Up = Up F13"
xmodmap -e "keysym Down = Down F16"
xmodmap -e "keysym Left = Left F18"
xmodmap -e "keysym Right = Right F19"

And use these mappings in Vim:
:map <t_F3> <S-Up>
:map! <t_F3> <S-Up>
:map <t_F6> <S-Down>
:map! <t_F6> <S-Down>
:map <t_F8> <S-Left>
:map! <t_F8> <S-Left>
:map <t_F9> <S-Right>
:map! <t_F9> <S-Right>

Instead of, say, <S-Up> you can use any other command that you want to use the
shift-cursor-up key for.  (Note: To help people that have a Sun keyboard with
left side keys F14 is not used because it is confused with the undo key; F15
is not used, because it does a window-to-front; F17 is not used, because it
closes the window.  On other systems you can probably use them)

20.3 Window size					*window_size*

[This is about the size of the whole window Vim is using, not a window that is
created with the :split command]

If you are running Vim on an Amiga and the terminal name is "amiga" or
"builtin_amiga", the amiga-specific window resizing will be enabled.  On Unix
systems three methods are tried to get the window size:

- an ioctl call (TIOCGSIZE or TIOCGWINSZ, depends on your system)
- the environment variables "LINES" and "COLUMNS"
- from the termcap entries "li" and "co"

If everything fails a default size of 24 lines and 80 columns is assumed.  If
a window-resize signal is received the size will be set again.  If the window
size is wrong you can use the 'lines' and 'columns' options to set the
correct values.

One command can be used to set the screen size:

*:mod* *:mode*
:mod[e] [mode]

Without argument this only detects the screen size.  With MS-DOS it is
possible to switch screen mode.  [mode] can be one of these values:
"bw40"		40 columns black&white
"c40"		40 columns color
"bw80"		80 columns black&white
"c80"		80 columns color (most people use this)
"mono"		80 columns monochrome
"c4350"		43 or 50 lines EGA/VGA mode
number		mode number to use, depends on your video card

20.4 Slow and fast terminals			*slow_fast_terminal*
*slow_terminal*

If you have a fast terminal you may like to set the 'ruler' option.  The
cursor position is shown in the status line.  If you are using horizontal
scrolling ('wrap' option off) consider setting 'sidescroll' to a small
number.

If you have a slow terminal you may want to reset the 'showcmd' option.
The command characters will not be shown in the status line.  If the terminal
scrolls very slowly, set the 'scrolljump' to 5 or so.  If the cursor is moved
off the screen (e.g., with "j") Vim will scroll 5 lines at a time.  Another
possibility is to reduce the number of lines that Vim uses with the command
"z<height><CR>".

If the characters from the terminal are arriving with more than 1 second
between them you might want to set the 'timeout' and/or 'ttimeout' option.
See the "Options" chapter |options|.

If your terminal does not support a scrolling region, but it does support
insert/delete line commands, scrolling with multiple windows may make the
lines jump up and down.  If you don't want this set the 'ttyfast' option.
This will redraw the window instead of scroll it.

If your terminal scrolls very slowly, but redrawing is not slow, set the
'ttyscroll' option to a small number, e.g., 3.  This will make Vim redraw the
screen instead of scrolling, when there are more than 3 lines to be scrolled.

If you are using Vim over a slow serial line, you might want to try running
Vim inside the "screen" program.  Screen will optimize the terminal I/O quite
a bit.

If you are testing termcap options, but you cannot see what is happening,
you might want to set the 'writedelay' option.  When non-zero, one character
is sent to the terminal at a time (does not work for MS-DOS).  This makes the
screen updating a lot slower, making it possible to see what is happening.

*hpterm*
When you are using an hpterm you probably run into a few problems.  The best
thing to do is to use an xterm instead.  If you want to use an hpterm for some
reason, try (re)setting some options:
:set	t_sr=
:set	t_al=
:set	t_dl=
:set	ttyfast			redraw screen instead of scrolling

:set	weirdinvert		makes highlighting work better, but
slows down screen updating a lot

21. Differences from Vi and Ex				*vi_differences*
==============================

Throughout this document differences between Vim and Vi/Ex are given in
curly braces.  This chapter only lists what has not been mentioned in
previous chapters.  Also see |vim_diff.txt| for an overview.

21.1 Missing commands					*missing_commands*

A large number of the "Ex" commands (the commands that start with a colon)
are included.  However, there is no Ex mode.

These commands are in Vi, but not in Vim.

Q			{Vi: go to Ex mode} See |pseudo-Q|.

:a[ppend]		{Vi: append text}		*:a* *:append*
:c[hange]		{Vi: replace lines}		*:c* *:change*
:i[nsert]		{Vi: insert text}		*:i* *:insert*
:o[pen]			{Vi: start editing in open mode}*:o* *:open*
:z			{Vi: print some lines}		*:z*

21.2 Missing options					*missing_options*

These options are in the Unix Vi, but not in Vim.  If you try to set one of
them you won't get an error message, but the value is not used and cannot be
printed.

autoprint (ap)		toggle	(default on)		*'autoprint'* *'ap'*
beautify (bf)		toggle	(default off)		*'beautify'* *'bf'*
flash (fl)		toggle	(default ??)		*'flash'* *'fl'*
graphic (gr)		toggle	(default off)		*'graphic'* *'gr'*
hardtabs (ht)		number	(default 8)		*'hardtabs'* *'ht'*
number of spaces that a <Tab> moves on the display
mesg			toggle	(default on)		*'mesg'*
novice			toggle	(default ??)		*'novice'*
open			toggle	(default on)		*'open'*
optimize (op)		toggle	(default off)		*'optimize'* *'op'*
prompt			toggle	(default on)		*'prompt'*
redraw			toggle	(default off)		*'redraw'*
slowopen (slow)		toggle	(default off)		*'slowopen'* *'slow'*
sourceany		toggle	(default off)		*'sourceany'*
tagstack (tgst)		toggle  (default on)		*'tagstack'* *'tgst'*
enables the tagstack and ":pop".
window (wi)		number	(default 23)		*'window'* *'wi'*
w300			number	(default 23)		*'w300'*
w1200			number	(default 23)		*'w1200'*
w9600			number	(default 23)		*'w9600'*

21.3 Limits						*limits*

Vim has only a few limits for the files that can be edited {Vi: can not handle
<Nul> characters and characters above 128, has limited line length, many other
limits}.

Maximum line length	   On machines with 16-bit ints (Amiga and MS-DOS real
mode): 32767, otherwise 2147483647 characters.
Longer lines are split.
Maximum number of lines	   2147483647 lines.
Maximum file size	   Only limited by available disk space for the swap
file.
Length of a file name	   Unix and Win32: 1024 characters, otherwise 128
characters.
Maximum display width	   Unix and Win32: 1024 characters, otherwise 255
characters

Information for undo and registers are kept in memory, thus when making (big)
changes the amount of (virtual) memory available limits the number of undo
levels and the text that can be kept in registers.  Other things are also kept
in memory:  Command line history, error messages for Quickfix mode, etc.

CONTENTS			*reference_contents* *ref* *reference*

[Note: The commands for multiple windows and buffers are explained in
a different file, see |vim_win.txt|]

1. Introduction			|intro|
2. Notation				|notation|
3. Starting Vim			|starting|
3.1 Vim arguments			|vim_arguments|
3.2 Workbench (Amiga only)		|workbench|
3.3 Vim window (Amiga only)		|amiga_window|
3.4 Initialization			|initialization|
3.5 Suspending				|suspend|
3.6 The viminfo file			|viminfo_file|
4. Modes				|vim_modes|
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Switching from mode to mode		|mode_switching|
4.3 Insert and Replace mode		|mode_ins_repl|
4.3.1 special keys			|ins_special_keys|
4.3.2 special special keys		|ins_special_special|
4.3.3 'textwidth' option		|ins_textwidth|
4.3.4 'expandtab' option		|ins_expandtab|
4.3.5 Replace mode			|replace_mode|
4.3.6 Insert mode completion		|ins_completion|
4.4 Command-line mode			|mode_cmdline|
4.4.1 Command line editing		|cmdline_editing|
4.4.2 Command line completion		|cmdline_completion|
4.4.3 Ex command lines			|cmdline_lines|
4.4.4 Ex command line ranges		|cmdline_ranges|
4.4.5 Ex special characters		|cmdline_special|
4.5 The window contents			|window_contents|
4.6 Abbreviations			|abbreviations|
4.7 Digraphs				|digraphs|
4.8 Using the mouse			|mouse_using|
5. Editing files			|edit_files|
5.1 Introduction			|edit_intro|
5.2 Editing a file			|edit_a_file|
5.3 The argument list			|argument_list|
5.4 Writing and quitting		|write_quit|
5.5 Using the QuickFix mode		|quickfix|
5.6 Editing binary files		|edit_binary|
5.7 Automatic commands			|autocommand|
6. Cursor motions			|cursor_motions|
6.1 Left-right motions			|left_right_motions|
6.2 Up-down motions			|up_down_motions|
6.3 Word motions			|word_motions|
6.4 Text object motions			|object_motions|
6.5 Text object selection		|object_select|
6.6 Pattern searches			|pattern_searches|
6.7 Various motions			|various_motions|
7. Scrolling				|scrolling|
8. Tags and special searches		|tags_and_searches|
8.1 Tags				|tag_commands|
8.2 Identifier searches			|include_search|
9. Inserting text			|inserting|
10. Deleting text			|deleting|
11. Changing text			|changing|
11.1 Delete and insert			|delete_insert|
11.2 Simple changes			|simple_change|
11.3 Complex changes			|complex_change|
11.4 Formatting text			|formatting|
11.5 Formatting C programs		|C_indenting|
12. Copying and moving text		|copy_move|
13. Visual mode				|Visual_mode|
14. Various commands			|various|
15. Repeating commands			|repeating|
15.1 Single repeats			|single_repeat|
15.2 Multiple repeats			|multi_repeat|
15.3 Complex repeats			|complex_repeat|
16. Undo and redo			|undo_redo|
17. Key mapping				|key_mapping|
18. Recovery after a crash		|crash_recovery|
18.1 The swap file			|swap_file|
18.2 Recovery				|recovery|
19. Options				|options|
19.1 Setting options			|set_option|
19.2 Automatically setting options	|auto_setting|
19.3 Saving settings			|save_settings|
19.4 Options summary			|option_summary|
20. Terminal information		|terminal_info|
20.1 Startup				|startup|
20.2 Terminal options			|terminal_options|
20.3 Window size			|window_size|
20.4 Slow and fast terminals		|slow_fast_terminal|
21. Differences from Vi and Ex		|vi_differences|
21.1 Missing commands			|missing_commands|
21.2 Missing options			|missing_options|
21.3 Limits				|limits|

vim:tw=78:ts=8:sw=8:
`