jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

     jgraph - filter for graph plotting to postscript

     jgraph [-p] [-P] [-L] [-comments] [filename ...]
              -    -    -    --------   --------

     Jgraph takes the description of a graph or graphs  and  pro-
     duces  a  postscript  file on the standard output. Jgraph is
     ideal for plotting any mixture of scatter point graphs, line
     graphs,  and/or  bar  graphs,  and embedding the output into
     LaTeX, or any other text processing system  which  can  read

     Jgraph reads its input from  the  specified  files.   If  no
     files are specified, then it reads from standard input.

     The graph description language is simple enough to get  nice
     looking graphs with a minimum of effort, yet powerful enough
     to give the user the flexibility to tailor the appearance of
     the  graph  to  his  or  her  individual  preferences.  This
     includes  plotting  multiple  graphs  and  laying  them  out
     separately on the page (or pages).

     As an example, if the user wanted to simply plot the  points
     (2,3),  (4,5),  (1,6),  the  following  would be enough of a
     specification file:

          newcurve pts 2 3 4 5 1 6

     Now, if the user wanted to spruce the  graph  up  by  adding
     labels  to  the axes, connecting the points, and titling the
     graph, then the input could change to:

          newcurve pts 2 3 4 5 1 6 linetype solid
          xaxis label : X axis
          yaxis label : Y axis
          title : This is an example graph

     If the user instead wanted this to be a bar graph with  dif-
     ferent endpoints on the axes, he/she could simply change the
     input to:

          xaxis min 0 max 5 label : X axis
          yaxis min 0 max 6 label : Y axis
          newcurve pts 2 3 4 5 1 6 marktype xbar
          title : This is an example bar graph

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

     There are many more features of  the  description  language,
     which  are  described  below  in the next section.  Features
     which are not embedded within the description language  are:
     line  and function interpolation, function plotting, and pie
     graphs.  The latter is impossible to  do  with  the  aid  of
     jgraph,  however,  the  others  can  be effected with jgraph
     mixed with awk or c.  See FUNCTION PLOTTING AND  OTHER  NON-

     Also below is a section HINTS AND EXAMPLE GRAPHS, which  may
     give good ideas on how to use jgraph more effectively.

     -P   The -P option produces postscript which  can  be  piped
          directly  to lpr, which can be displayed in an Xwindows
          environment  with  gs  (ghostscript).    Without   this
          option, the output should be embedded within LaTeX or a
          similar text processing system.

     -L   The -L option produces a landscape plot.

     -p   The -p option re-prints the input on the standard  out-
          put, only with all the defaults made explicit.  This is
          useful for letting the user do his/her own special for-
          matting,  as  it  shows  the  explicit  values that the
          defaults assume, so that they can be manipulated.

          This option makes jgraph put comments into  the  output
          postscript.   These make it easier for the user to wade
          through the final postscript if necessary.

     The description language is essentially keywords followed by
     attributes.   All  keywords and attributes except for string
     attributes are tokens  --  non-white-space  characters  sur-
     rounded  by  white-space. Special tokens are ``(*'', ``*)'',
     ``include'', ``:'', and ``shell'',  which  denote  comments,
     include-file  statements,  string  identifiers,  and  shell-
     include statements:

          Comments are surrounded by the tokens ``(*'' ``*)''  as
          in  Modula-2 (except that here, the tokens must be sur-
          rounded by white- space).  Comments may be nested.   If
          the  comment runs to the end of a file, the last ``*)''
          may be omitted.

     Include-file statements
          The token following an ``include'' token is expected to
          be  a  file  name.   The  result of the statement is to
          include  the  contents  of  the  file  at  that  point.

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

          Include-file  statments  can  be nested within included
          files, and within shell includes.

          In places where strings are required (as in  graph  and
          curve  labels),  they  are  denoted by the token ``:''.
          The second character after the ``:'' starts the string,
          and the next newline character terminates it. Thus, the
          string ``Graph #1'' can be denoted as:

               : Graph #1<newline>


               Graph #1<newline>

          One can get multiline strings by making a backslash the
          last  character  before the newline on all but the last
          line.   Notice  that  in  strings  white-space  is  not
          ignored.  This  way of denoting strings allows the user
          to embed leading and trailing spaces, as  well  as  the
          null  string.   For  example,  the  null string ``'' is
          represented by:

               : <newline>

          Once a string has been  started,  it  may  contain  any
          character.   Specifically,  it may contain the sequence
          ``(*'', ``shell'', or ``include''  without  starting  a
          comment  or  including  a  file.  Each line of a string
          must contain  less  than  1000  characters.   Otherwise
          string sizes are limited only by the size of memory.

     Shell-include statements
          Shell include statements are  of  the  form  ``shell'',
          ``:'',  and then a string.  The result of the statement
          is that the string  is  executed  (using  popen,  which
          passes  the  string  to sh), and the standard output is
          included at that point.  Shell-includes can  be  freely
          nested  within  include-files and other shell-includes.
          Shell commands may be more than one line, but must  not
          exceed  1000  characters.   The  shell statement is not
          (yet) available on VMS.

          In the descriptions below:

          tk {integer}
               means  that  token  tk  must  be  followed  by  an

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

          tk [integer]
               means that tk may be followed by an  integer,  but
               doesn't have to.  In most cases, if tk is not fol-
               lowed by an integer, then the command  denoted  by
               tk is ignored.

          tk [{integer} {integer}]*
               -------   -------
               means that tk must be followed by an  even  number
               of integers.

          Supported types other than  integer  are:  {float}  for
          floating  point  entries,  {token}  for  any token, and
          {string} for a string as defined above.


               This starts editing a new graph (see GRAPH EDITING
               COMMANDS).  Note that multiple graphs may be drawn
               on the same page.

          graph {integer}
               This edits the graph denoted by {integer}. If  the
               graph  doesn't exist, then this command creates it
               and starts  editing  it.  Newgraph  is  simply  an
               abbreviation  for graph n where n=0 if this is the
                                 ----- -
               first graph, otherwise n=m+1, where m is the larg-
               est number of any graph so far.

          copygraph [integer]
               This creates a  new  graph,  and  copies  all  the
               attributes  from  the  graph  [integer]'s  x and y
               axes, as well as its x translate  and  y translate
                                    -----------       -----------
               values, the clipping, the legend defaults, and the
               title defaults.   If  the  [integer]  is  omitted,
               then  it  copies  its values from the ``previous''
               graph, which is defined to be the graph  with  the
               largest  number  less  than  the  currrent graph's
               number.  If the current  graph  has  the  smallest
               number,  then it will take the last graph from the
               previous page of graphs.  If there is no  previous
               page,  then  an error will be flagged.  (copygraph
               does not copy the values of the hash at, mhash at,
                                               -------  --------
               and hash label attributes).

               This command is for plotting  graphs  on  multiple
               pages.   After a newpage, the graphs that the user
               enters will be plotted on a new page.  New  graphs
               and  strings  will  be  numbered  starting with 0.
               Essentially, newpage  is  the  same  as  appending
               together the output of separate calls of jgraph on

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

               the text before the newpage, and on the text after
               the  newpage.   Newpage  will  most likely produce
                    -------    -------
               bizarre results if the -P option is not specified.

          X [float]
          Y [float]
               Postscript files to be embedded in LaTeX (and some
               other  programs)  contain a ``bounding box'' which
               defines the area which LaTeX will allocate for the
               postscript.   Other programs use this bounding box
               as well, sometimes using it  to  define  where  to
               clip  the  postscript image.  Jgraph uses the axis
               lines and labels, and the title  to  generate  its
               bounding box.  Most of the time that's good enough
               to work in LaTeX.  The Y and  X  commands  say  to
                                      -      -
               make  the  height and width of the bounding box at
               least Y and X inches, respectively, but  to  main-
                     -     -
               tain  the  current centering of the graph.  If you
               still need further control over the  bounding  box
               (e.g.  to change the centering), try the bbox com-
               mand.  If there's more than one page in the jgraph
               file,  Y,  X and bbox values can be given for each
                      -   -     ----

          bbox float float float float
               ----- ----- ----- -----
               If the Y and X commands aren't enough to help  you
                      -     -
               define  a good bounding box, this command lets you
               explicitly enter one which will go  directly  into
               the  jgraph  output.   Its  units  are  the  final
               postscript units.  It's probably best to  use  the
               -pFR  option  to see what the bounding box is that
               jgraph produces, and then alter  that  accordingly
               with bbox.  The main use for this is to change the
               automatic centering that jgraph performs:  Usually
               the  center  of  the bounding box that jgraph com-
               putes is put at the center of the page.   Changing
               the bbox changes this center.

          preamble : {string}
          preamble {token}
          epilogue : {string}
          epilogue {token}
               These two  commands  allow  the  user  to  include
               strings   or   files   (the  token  specifies  the
               filename)  which  will  be  copied  directly  into
               jgraph's  output.  The preamble is included at the
               beginning  of  the  output  (after  some   initial
               postscript  to  set things up for jgraph), and the
               epilogue is included at the end.  A good  use  for
               the  preamble is to set up a postscript dictionary
               if you're using postscript marks.

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

          These commands act on the current graph. Graph  editing
          is  terminated  when  one  of the top-level description
          commands is given.

               Edit the x or y axis (see AXIS EDITING COMMANDS)

               This starts editing a new curve of the graph  (see

          curve {integer}
               This edits the curve denoted by {integer}. If  the
               curve  doesn't exist, then this command creates it
               and starts editing it. Newcurve and curve interact
                                      --------     -----
               as newgraph and graph do.
                  --------     -----

               This is an abbreviation for:

                 newcurve marktype none linetype solid

          copycurve [integer]
               This starts editing a new curve of the graph,  and
               copies  all  its values except for the points from
               curve [integer.]  If  the  [integer]  is  omitted,
                      -------              -------
               then  it  copies its values from the last curve in
               this  graph.   If  this  graph  currently  has  no
               curves, then it searches backwards from the previ-
               ous graph.

               This edits the title of the graph (see LABEL EDIT-
               ING COMMANDS).  The title is given a default loca-
               tion centered beneath the  graph,  and  a  default
               font size of 12, however, as with all labels, this
               can be changed.

               The edits the legend  of  the  graph  (see  LEGEND
               EDITING  COMMANDS).   As a default, the graph will
               contain a legend if any of its curves have labels.

               This edits a new text string  (see  LABEL  EDITING
               COMMANDS).   This  is useful as it allows the user
               to plot text on the graph as well as curves.

          string {integer}
          copystring [integer]

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

               String and copystring are to  newstring  as  curve
               ------     ----------         ---------      -----
               and copycurve are to newcurve.
                   ---------        --------

               Border draws  a  square  border  around  the  area
               defined   by  the  axes.   Noborder  specifies  no
               border.  Noborder is the default.

               Clip specifies that all curves in the  graph  will
               be clipped -- that is, no points outside of the of
               axes will be plotted.  Clipping can also be speci-
               fied on a per-curve basis.  The default is noclip.

          inherit axes
               This is an old command which is kept for  backward
               compatibility.  Copycurve.  is equivalent to:

                 newgraph inherit axes

          x translate [float]
           -           -----
          y translate [float]
           -           -----
               By default, the bottom left-hand  corner  of  each
               graph  is at point (0,0) (final postscript units).
               X translate and Y translate translate  the  bottom
               -----------     -----------
               left-hand corner of the graph [float] inches.  The
               main use of this is to draw more than one graph on
               a page.  Note that jgraph considers all the graphs
               drawn on the page when it  computes  its  bounding
               box  for  centering.   Thus,  if only one graph is
               drawn, it will always be  centered  on  the  page,
               regardless  of  its  X translate  and  Y translate
                                    -----------       -----------
               values.  These values are used for relative place-
               ment of the graphs.
                  To change the  centering  of  the  graphs,  use

          X [float]
          Y [float]
               These are the same as X and  Y  in  the  Top-level
                                     -      -
               commands,  except  that they let the user continue
               editing the current graph.

          These commands act on the current  axis  as  chosen  by
          xaxis or yaxis (see GRAPH EDITING COMMANDS). Axis edit-
          -----    -----
          ing terminates when a graph  or  top-level  command  is
          given.  There  are  more advanced axis editing commands
          given below which have  to  do  with  moving  the  hash
          marks,  adding  new  hash  marks  and labels, etc.  See

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)


          log  Set the axis to  be  linear  or  logarithmic.  The
               default is linear.  If the axis is set to be loga-
               rithmic, then values <= 0.0 will be disallowed, as
               they are at negative infinity on the axis.

          min [float]
          max [float]
               Set the minimum and maximum values of  this  axis.
               Defaults  depend on the points given.  They can be
               seen by using the -p option.  Unless  stated,  all
               units  (for  example  point plotting, string plot-
               ting, etc.) will be in terms of the  min  and  max
                                                    ---       ---
               values of the x and y axes.

          size [float]
               Set the size of this axis in inches.

          log base [float]
             -      -----
               Set the base of the logarithmic  axis.  Default  =
               10.  This is the value which determines which hash
               marks and hash labels are automatically produced.

          hash [float]
               Hash marks will be [float] units apart.  Default =
               -1.  If this value equals 0, then there will be no
               hash marks.  If this value is less  than  0,  then
               the hash marks will be automatically set by jgraph
               (see -p for the value).   By  default,  each  hash
               mark  will  be  labeled  with  its value. Hash and
               shash are ignored if the axes are logarithmic.

          shash [float]
               Make sure there  is  a  hash  mark  at  the  point
               [float]  along  the  axis.   The default is set by
               jgraph if hash = -1.  If hash is set by the  user,
               shash is defaulted to the min value of the axis.
               -----                     ---

          mhash [integer]
               Put [integer] minor hash marks between  the  above
               hash  marks.   Default = -1.  If this value equals
               0, then there will be no  minor  hash  marks.   If
               this  value  is  negative,  then the value will be
               chosen by jgraph (see -p for the value).

          precision [integer]

          hash format token
              -       -----
               These control how  jgraph  formats  the  automatic
               hash  labels.   The  user  shouldn't have to worry

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

               about  these  values,  except  in  extreme  cases.
               Jgraph  uses  printf  to  format  the  labels.  If
               hash format is ``f'' (the default), then the value
               of a hash label is printed with

               printf("%.*f", precision, value).

          Other valid hash format values are ``G'', ``g'', ``E'',
          and  ``e''.   ``G'' is a good generic format which con-
          verts to scientific notation if the value  becomes  too
          big  or  too small.  If the precision is negative, then
          jgraph chooses a default:  For  ``g''  and  ``G'',  the
          default  is  6.  For ``e'' and ``E'', the default is 0,
          and for ``f'', jgraph tries to determine  a  reasonable
          default.   Please  read  the man page of prinf(1) for a
          complete description of how it formats  floating  point

               Edit the label of this  axis  (see  LABEL  EDITING
               COMMANDS).  By  default,  the  label  is  in  font
               ``Times-Bold'', and has a font size of 10.  If the
               user doesn't change any of the plotting attributes
               of the label, jgraph chooses an appropriate  place
               for the axis label.

          draw at [float]
              -    -----
               Draw the axis line at  this  point  on  the  other
               axis. The default is usually the other axis's min,
               however if hash scale is positive (see  hash scale
                          ----------                   ----------
               under ADVANCED AXIS EDITING), it will be the other
               axis's max.

               Do not draw  the  axis,  the  hash  marks  or  any
               labels.   This  is useful for plotting points with
               no axes, and for overlaying graphs on top  of  one
               another  with  no  clashes.  This is equivalent to
               no draw axis,                  no draw axis label,
               ------------                   ------------------
               no draw hash marks, and no draw hash labels.
               ------------------      -------------------

          draw Cancels the effect  of  nodraw.  Default  =  draw.
                                       ------               ----
               This  is equivalent to draw axis, draw axis label,
                                      ---------  ---------------
               draw hash marks, and draw hash labels.
               ---------------      ----------------

          grid lines
          no grid lines
            -    -
               Grid lines specifies to plot a grid line  at  each
               major  hash  mark  on  this  axis.  The default is
               no grid lines.

          mgrid lines

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

          no mgrid lines
            -     -
               Mgrid lines specifies to plot a grid line at  each
               minor  hash  mark  on  this  axis.  The default is
               no mgrid lines.

          These commands act on the current curve  as  chosen  by
          newcurve  or curve (see GRAPH EDITING COMMANDS).  Curve
          --------     -----
          editing terminates when a graph or top-level command is

          pts [{float} {float}]*
                -----   -----
               This sets the points to plot in this  curve.   The
               first  float  is the x value, and the second float
                      -----                                 -----
               is the y value of the point.  Points  are  plotted
               in  the order specified.  This command stops read-
               ing points when a non-float is  given.   The  user
               can  specify  this command multiple times within a
               curve -- each time, simply more points  are  added
               to the curve.

          x epts [{float} {float} {float} {float}]*
           -       -----   -----   -----   -----
          y epts [{float} {float} {float} {float}]*
           -       -----   -----   -----   -----
               This allows the user to specify points and  ``con-
               fidence   values''  (otherwise  known  as  ``error
               bars'').  The first two floats specify the x and y
               values  of  the  point,  as  above.   If x epts is
               specified,  then the  second  two  floats  specify
               range  or confidence values for the x value of the
               point. Error bars will be printed to each of these
               x values (using the original point's y value) from
               the original point.  Similarly,  y epts  specifies
               range  or confidence values for the y value of the
               point.  pts x epts and y epts can  all  be  inter-
                       --- ------     ------

               This sets the kind of mark  that  is  plotted  for
               this  curve.   Valid  marks are: circle, box, dia-
                                                ------  ---  ----
               mond, triangle, x,  cross,  ellipse,  xbar,  ybar,
               ----  --------  -   -----   -------   ----   ----
               text,  postscript, eps, none, and variants of gen-
               ----   ----------  ---  ----                  ----
               eral.  Most of these are self-explanatory,  except
               for the last few:
                 Xbar makes the curve into a bar graph  with  the
               bars going to the x axis.  Ybar has the bars going
               to the y axis.
                 Text lets the user plot text instead of a  mark.
               The  text is editted as a label (see LABEL EDITING
               COMMANDS) immediately following the text  command.
               The x and y fields of the label have special mean-
               ings here:  They define where the label is  to  be
               printed  in  relation  to  the  curve points.  For

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

               example, if they are both 0,  the  label  will  be
               printed directly on the curve points.  If x is 1.0
               and y is -1.0, then the label will be printed  one
               unit  to  the  right  and one unit below the curve
               points (units are units of  the  x  and  y  axes).
               Default label values are 0 for x and y, and center
                 Postscript: See the postscript token below.
                 ----------          ----------
                 Eps: See the eps token below.
                 ---          ---
                 None means that no mark will be plotted (this is
               useful for drawing lines).
                 There are four types  of  general  marks,  which
               work  using  the  gmarks  command described below.
               The  four  marktypes  are   general,   general nf,
                                           -------    ----------
               general bez, and general bez nf.
               -----------      --------------
                 By default, a new mark is chosen for each curve.

          marksize [float] [float]
                    -----   -----
               This sets the size of the mark.  The first [float]
               is  the  width  of the mark, and the second is the
               height. Units are  those  of  the  x  and  y  axes
               respectively,  unless that axis is logarithmic, in
               which case the units are inches.   Negative  mark-
               sizes  are  allowed  (e.g.  a negative height will
               flip a triangle mark). The default mark  size  can
               be determined using the -p option of jgraph

          mrotate [float]
               This allows the user to rotate  the  mark  [float]
               degrees.  Default is zero.

          gray [float]
          color [float float float]
                 ----- ----- -----
               These specify either the grayness of the curve  or
               its  color.   Values  for  gray  should  be from 0
               (black) to 1 (white).   Values  for  color  should
               also  be  from  0  to 1.  They are RGB values, and
               thus define the amount of red, green and  blue  in
               the  curve  respectively.  Specifying color nulli-
               fies the gray value, and vice versa.  The  default
               is gray 0
                  ---- -

          fill [float]
          cfill [float float float]
                 ----- ----- -----
               This sets the filling of  marks  which  define  an
               area  to  fill  (e.g.   box,  circle,  xbar). fill
                                       ---   ------   ----   ----
               defines a gray value, and cfill  defines  a  color
               value  (see gray and color above for a description
                           ----     -----
               of the units).  The default is fill 0 (black).
                                              ---- -

          pattern token [float]
                  -----  -----
               This defines the how the mark  is  to  be  filled.

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

               Token  may  be  solid  (the  default),  stripe, or
               -----           -----                   ------
               estripe.  If solid, then the float is ignored, and
               -------      -----           -----
               the  mark  is completely filled in with either the
               gray value defined by  fill  or  the  color  value
               defined  by  cfill.  If stripe, then the mark will
                            -----      ------
               be filled with stripes of either  the  gray  value
               defined  by  fill  or  the color defined by cfill.
                            ----                           -----
               The stripes will  be  rotated  by  float  degrees.
               Estripe  differs  from  stripe only in that stripe
               -------                 ------              ------
               draws stripes on a white background, while estripe
               simply draws the stripes on an empty background.

          pfill [float]
          pcfill [float float float]
                  ----- ----- -----
          ppattern token [float]
                   -----  -----
               Poly allows the user  to  make  jgraph  treat  the
               curve  as  a  closed  polygon (or in the case of a
               bezier, a closed bezier curve).  pfill, pcfill and
                                                -----  ------
               ppattern   specify the filling of the polygon, and
               work like  fill,  cfill  and  pattern  above.  The
                          ----   -----       -------
               default is nopoly.

          gmarks [{float} {float}]*
                   -----   -----
               Gmarks is a way for  the  user  to  define  custom
               marks.   For  each  mark  on  (x,y),  Each pair of
                                              - -
               {float x}, {float y}, will define a point  on  the
                -------    -------
               mark (x + (float x * marksize x / 2), y + (float y
                          -------   ----------            -------
               * marksize y / 2)).
                 Thus, for example, the box mark could be defined

               gmarks -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1
               marktype general

          The marktypes  general,  general nf,  general bez,  and
                         -------   ----------   -----------
          general bez nf,  allow  the  gmarks  points to define a
          closed polygon, a line, a closed  bezier  curve  and  a
          regular  bezier  curve  respectively (the ``nf'' stands
          for ``non-filled'').

          postscript : {string}
          postscript {token}
               This allows the user to enter direct postscript as
               a  mark.   It  automatically  sets the marktype to
               postscript.  If a string  is  entered,  then  that
               string  is  used as the mark in the jgraph output.
               If a token is entered, then that token must  stand
               for a filename, which will be copied to the output
               once for every mark.  The postscript will  be  set
               up  so  that when the string or file is put to the

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               output, (0, 0) of the the axes is in the middle of
               the  mark,  it  is rotated by mrotate degrees, and
               scaled by  (marksize x  /  2),  marksize y  /  2).
                           ----------          ----------
               Thus, the box mark could be defined as:

               postscript : 1 setlinewidth -1 -1 moveto -1 1 lineto \
                            1 1 lineto 1 -1 lineto -1 -1 lineto stroke

          If the marksize x is defined to be (0, 0), then  jgraph
          does  no  scaling.   This is useful when the postscript
          has strings, and the user does not want the strings  to
          be scaled.

          eps {token}
               This allows the user to  include  an  encapsulated
               postscript  file  and  treat  it  as  a  mark.  It
               automatically sets the marktype to eps.  The  file
               will  be  scaled so that the bounding box is mark-
               size units.  Among other things, this  allows  the
               user  to  include  whole  jgraph  files  as marks.
               Please see ad.jgr, explained in HINTS AND  EXAMPLE
               GRAPHS below for an example of this feature.

               Rarrows specifies to draw an arrow at the  end  of
               every line segment in the curve. Larrows specifies
               to draw an arrow at the beginning  of  every  line
               segment.  The size of the arrows can be changed by
               using asize.  The default is nolarrows and  norar-
                     -----                  ---------      ------
                 Arrows always go exactly to the point specified,
               with  the exception of when the marktype is ``cir-
               cle''.  In this case, the arrow goes to  the  edge
               of the circle.

               This is analgous to the above,  except  that  with
               larrow,  the  only arrow drawn is to the beginning
               of the first segment in the curve, and  with  rar-
               row,  the  only  arrow  drawn is to the end of the
               last segment.

          asize [float] [float]
                 -----   -----
               This sets the  size  of  the  arrows.   The  first
               [float] controls the arrow's width.  Its units are
               those of the x-axis.  The second [float]  controls

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               the  arrow's height.  It is in the units of the y-
               axis.  Use the -p option  of  jgraph  to  see  the
               default values.

          afill [float]
          afill [float]
          apattern token [float]
                   -----  -----
               These control the grayness or color of arrowheads.
               Afill, acfill and apattern work in the same way as
               -----  ------     --------
               fill, cfill  and  pattern  described  above.   The
               ----  -----       -------
               default is afill 0 (black).
                          ----- -

          linetype [token]
               This defines the type of the line  connecting  the
               points.   Valid entries are solid, dotted, dashed,
                                           -----  ------  ------
               longdash,  dotdash,  dotdotdash,   dotdotdashdash,
               --------   -------   ----------    --------------
               general,  and none.  The default is none.  General
               -------       ----                  ----   -------
               lets the user define his own  linetype  using  the
               glines  command  described below.  Points are con-
               nected in the order in  which  they  are  inserted
               using the pts command.

          glines [float]*
               This lets the user specify the exact dashing of  a
               line.  The format is as in postscript -- the first
               number is the length of the first dash, the second
               is  the  length of the space after the first dash,
               etc.  For example, dotdash  could  be  defined  as
               ``glines 5 3 1 3''.

          linethickness [float]
               This  defines  the  line  thickness  (in  absolute
               postscript units) of the connecting line.  Default
               = 1.0.

               Bezier specifies to  use  the  curve's  points  to
               define  successive bezier curves.  The first point
               is the starting point.  The next two  are  control
               points  for the bezier curve and the next point is
               the ending point.  If  there  is  another  bezier,
               this  ending  point is also the beginning point of
               the next curve.  The next  two  points  are  again
               control  points,  and the next point is the ending
               point.  Thus, a bezier must have a total of (3n  +
               1) points, where n is at least 1.
                 In bezier curves, marks and arrows only apply to
               every third point.  Nobezier is the default.

          clip This specifies that this curve will be clipped  --

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               that  is, no points outside of the of axes will be

               This turns off clipping.  If clipping  was  speci-
               fied  for  the  entire  graph,  then noclip has no
               effect.  Noclip is the default.

               This edits the label of this curve  for  the  pur-
               posed  of  drawing  a  legend.  (see LABEL EDITING
               COMMANDS and LEGEND EDITING COMMANDS).  Unless the
               legend  entry  is custom, setting any label attri-
               bute except for  the  text  itself  will  have  no

          The following commands are  used  for  editing  labels.
          Unless  stated otherwise, the defaults are written with
          each command.  Label editing  terminates  when  one  of
          these tokens is not given.

          : {string}
               This sets the string of the label.  If  no  string
               is set, the label will not be printed.

          x [float]
          y [float]
               This sets the x or  y  coordinate  of  the  label.
               Units  are  the  units of the x and y axes respec-

          font [token]
               This sets the font.  Default is  usually  ``Times-

          fontsize [float]
               This sets the fontsize in points.  Default is usu-
               ally 9.

          linesep [float]
               This sets the distance between lines in multilined
               labels.   Units  are  points.   The default is the

          hjr  These set the horizontal  justification  to  left,
               center, and right, respectively.  Default = hjc.


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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

          vjb  These  set  the  vertical  justification  to   top
               center, and bottom, respectively.  Default = vjb.

          rotate [float]
               This will rotate the string [float] degrees.   The
               point of rotation is defined by the vj and hj com-
                                                   --     --
               mands.  For example, to rotate  90  degrees  about
               the  center  of  a  string,  one would use vjc hjc
                                                          --- ---
               rotate 90.
               ------ --

          lgray [float]
          lcolor [float float float]
                  ----- ----- -----
               These control the color or  the  grayness  of  the
               label.   It  works  just  as gray and color do for
                                            ----     -----
               curves and axes.  The default depends on the  con-
               text.  For example, for strings and the title, the
               default  is  black.   For  axis  labels  and  hash
               labels, the default is the color of the axis.  For
               text as marks, the default is the curve color.

          These commands allow the user to alter  the  appearance
          of  the legend.  Legends are printed out for each curve
          having  a  non-null  label.   The  legend  entries  are
          printed  out  in  the order of ascending curve numbers.
          Legend editing terminates when a graph command  or  top
          level command is issued.

          In earlier versions of jgraph (before version 8.0), the
          characteristics  of  each  legend entry were set in the
          label portion of the entry's curve.  Thus, for example,
          if  you  wanted each entry's fontsize to be 18, you had
          to set it in each entry's curve.  Now,  default  legend
          entry  characteristics  are set using the defaults key-
          word.  Unless  a  custom  legend  is  specified,  these
          default  values  override any values set in the entry's
          curve.  Thus, to get all entries to have a fontsize  of
          18, it must be set using defaults fontsize 18.
                                   -------- -------- --

          If legend editing  seems  cryptic,  try  the  following

          newcurve marktype box linetype solid label : Solid box
               pts 0 0 1 1 2 1 3 1
          newcurve marktype circle linetype dotted label : Dotted circle
               pts 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 2
          newcurve marktype x linetype dashed label : Dashed x
               pts 0 2 1 3 2 3 3 3
             legend defaults
               font Times-Italic fontsize 14 x 1.5 y 3.5 hjc vjb

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     The legend of this graph should be centered over the top  of
     the  graph,  and  all  legend  entries should be 14pt Times-

          offR These turn printing of the legend on and off.  The
               default  is  on  (but,  of course, if there are no
               curve labels defined, there will be no legend).

          linelength [float]
               This sets the length of the line printed in  front
               of  legend  entries  corresponding to curves which
               have lines. Units are those of the x axis,  unless
               the x axis is logarithmic, in which case the units
               are inches.  The default may be gotten  using  the
               -p option.

          linebreak [float]
               This sets the vertical distance between individual
               legend  entries.   Units  are those of the y axis,
               unless the y axis is logarithmic,  in  which  case
               the  units  are inches.  The default may be gotten
               using the -p option.

          midspace [float]
               This sets one of two things.  If any of the legend
               entries  have  lines  in  them, then this sets the
               distance between the  end  of  the  line  and  the
               legend  entry text.  Otherwise, this sets the dis-
               tance between center of the mark  and  the  legend
               entry text.  Units are those of the x axis, unless
               the x axis is logarithmic, in which case the units
               are  inches.   The default may be gotten using the
               -p option.

               This lets the user change the  attributes  of  all
               legend  entries.   The  defaults  are editted as a
               label (see LABEL EDITING COMMANDS).  A few of  the
               label  fields  have special meanings:  The : field
               is ignored.  The x and y fields define  where  the
                                -     -
               label  will  be  printed.   The  hj  and vj fields
                                                --      --
               define the justification of the legend about the x
               and  y  point.   Thus, if x is 10 and y is 15, and
                    -                    -           -
               hjc  vjb are specified, then the  legend  will  be
               ---  ---
               centered  horizontally  about x=10, and the bottom
               of the legend will be placed  on  y=15.   This  is
               analagous  to label plotting.  The rotate field is
               also analagous to label plotting.

               Defaults are as follows.  Rotate is  0.   font  is
                                         ------          ----
               ``Times-Roman''  and  fontsize is 9.  The color is

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

               black.  Default justification is hjl and vjc.  The
                                                ---     ---
               default x and y values are set according to the hj
                       -     -                                 --
               and vj fields.  See the -p option.

               These will automatically produce a legend  to  the
               left or the right of the graph. Left is equivalent
               to defaults hjr vjc and  right  is  equivalent  to
                  -------- --- ---      -----
               defaults hjl vjc.
               -------- --- ---

               These will automatically produce a legend  on  the
               top  or the bottom of the graph. Top is equivalent
               to defaults hjl vjb
                  -------- --- ---
                and bottom is equivalent to defaults hjl vjt.
                    ------                  -------- --- ---

          x [float]
          y [float]
               These are included mainly for backward compatabil-
               ity  to earlier versions of jgraph.  Setting x and
               y is equivalent to ``defaults x float y float  hjl
               -                               -----   -----

               This lets the user control where  each  individual
               legend  entry  goes.   The  values of the defaults
               fields are ignored, and instead, the values of the
               curve's  labels are used.  All justifications have
               defined results, except for hjc.  Similarly, rota-
               tion  other  than  0  is  likely  to  produce  bad

          These are more advanced commands for editing  an  axis.
          This  includes  drawing explicit hash marks and labels,
          moving the hash marks, axes, and  labels,  not  drawing
          the hash marks, labels, axes, etc.

          gray [float]
          color [float float float]
                 ----- ----- -----
               These specify either the grayness of the  axis  or
               its  color.   Values  for  gray  should  be from 0
               (black) to 1 (white).   Values  for  color  should
               also  be  from  0  to 1.  They are RGB values, and
               thus define the amount of red, green and  blue  in
               the axis respectively.  Specifying color nullifies
               the gray value, and vice versa.   The  default  is
               gray  0.   These  values  affect every part of the
               ----  -
               axis:  the label, the hash marks and  labels,  the
               axis line and the grid lines.

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

          grid gray [float]
              -      -----
          grid color [float float float]
              -       ----- ----- -----
          mgrid gray [float]
               -      -----
          mgrid color [float float float]
               -       ----- ----- -----
               These allow the user to  define  the  grayness  or
               color  of  the  gridlines and the mgridlines to be
               different from  those  of  the  axis  lines.   The
               default  grid gray  and  grid color is the same as
                        ---------       ----------
               the axis's gray and color.  The default mgrid gray
                          ----     -----               ----------
               and  mgrid color  is  the  same  as  grid gray and
                    -----------                     ---------
               grid color.

          hash at [float]
              -    -----
               Draw a hash mark at this point.  No label is  made
               for this hash mark.

          mhash at [float]
               -    -----
               Draw a minor hash mark at this point.

          hash label
               Edit a hash label (see  HASH  LABEL  EDITING  COM-

          hash labels
               Edit  the  default  characteristics  of  the  hash
               labels.  This  is  so that the user can change the
               fontsize, justification, etc., of the hash labels.
               Editing  hash labels  is  just like editing normal
               labels (see LABEL EDITING COMMANDS),  except  that
               the  :,  x, and y values are all ignored. Defaults
                        -      -
               for  hash  labels  are  as  follows:   Fontsize=9,
               Font=``Times-Roman'',  Justification  is dependent
               on whether it is the  x  or  y  axis  and  whether
               hash scale is positive or negative.

          hash scale [float]
              -       -----
               This is to change the size and orientation of  the
               hash  marks.   Default  =  -1.0.  Changing this to
               -2.0 will double the length  of  the  hash  marks.
               Changing  this  to  +1.0  will make the hash marks
               come above or to the right of the axis.

          draw hash marks at [float]
              -    -     -    -----
               By default, the hash marks are drawn either  above
               or  below  the  axis.   This command changes where
               they  are  drawn.  Hash scale   still   determines
               whether  they are drawn above or below this point,
               and their size.

          draw hash labels at [float]
              -    -      -    -----
               By default, the hash labels are drawn either above
               or  below the hash marks (again, this is dependent

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

               on hash scale).  This command changes  where  they
               are  drawn.  Justification and fontsize, etc., can
               be changed with the hash labels command.

          auto hash marks
              -    -
          no auto hash marks
            -    -    -
               This toggles whether or not jgraph will  automati-
               cally  create  hash marks according to hash, mhash
                                                      ----  -----
               and shash (or log base and mhash  for  logarithmic
                   -----     --------     -----
               axes). The default is auto hash marks.

          auto hash labels
              -    -
          no auto hash labels
            -    -    -
               This toggles whether or not jgraph will  automati-
               cally  create hash labels for the auto hash marks.
               Default = auto hash labels.

          draw axis
          no draw axis
            -    -
               This toggles whether  or  not  the  axis  line  is
               drawn.  Default = draw axis.

          draw axis label
              -    -
          no draw axis label
            -    -    -
               This toggles whether or not  the  axis  label  (as
               editted by the label command) is drawn.  Default =
               draw axis label.

          draw hash marks
              -    -
          no draw hash marks
            -    -    -
               This toggles whether or not the hash  marks  (both
               automatic  and  those  created  with  hash at  and
               mhash at) are drawn.  Default = draw hash marks.
               --------                        ---------------

          draw hash labels
              -    -
          no draw hash labels
            -    -    -
               This toggles whether or not the  hash  labels  are
               drawn.  Default = draw hash labels.

          Hash  labels  are  simply  strings  printed  along  the
          appropriate  axis.   As  a default, they are printed at
          the  place  denoted  by  the  most  recent  hash at  or
          mhash at  for this axis, but this can be changed by the
          at command.  If there has been no hash at or  mhash at,
          --                                -------     --------
          then  an  at command must be given, or there will be an
          error.  Hash editing  terminates  when  either  one  of
          these commands is not given.

          : {string}
               This sets  the  string  of  the  hash  label  (see
               Strings above under THE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE).

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

          at [float]
               This sets the location of the hash label along the
               current axis.

     Although jgraph doesn't  have  any  built-in  functions  for
     interpolation  or function plotting, both can be effected in
     jgraph with a little outside help:

     Function plotting
          With the include and  shell  statement,  it's  easy  to
                   -------      -----
          create  a  file of points of a function with a c or awk
          program, and include it into a graph.  See the  section
          HINTS  AND EXAMPLE GRAPHS for an example of a sin graph
          produced in this manner.

     Point interpolation
          Point interpolation is essentially the same as function
          plotting, and therefore is left out of jgraph. The UNIX
          spline(1) routine is a simple way to get  interpolation
          between points.  See bailey.jgr described below.  Maybe
          in a future release.

     Jgraph should be able to draw any kind  of  scatter/line/bar
     graph  that  a  user  desires.   To embellish the graph with
     extra text, axes, lines, etc., it is helpful  to  use  copy-
     graph.   The following example graphs show a few examples of
     different features of jgraph.  They should be in the  direc-
     tory JGRAPH DIR.

     - acc.jgr is a simple bar graph.  Acc.tex is  also  included
     to  show how one can include the output of jgraph in a LaTeX
     file.  To get this to work, you might have to substitute the
     entire pathname of the file acc.jps in the acc.tex file.

     - g8.jgr is a  simple  graph  with  some  plotted  text.   -
     g8col.jgr shows how to produce a color background -- it is
       the same as g8.jgr only all on  a  yellow  background.   -
     ebars.jgr  is  a  simple  graph  with error bars.  - sin.jgr
     shows how a sin function can be plotted  using  a  simple  c
     program  to produce the sin wave.  Moreover, this file shows
     a use of copygraph to plot an extra x and y axis  at  the  0

     - sin1.jgr is a further extension of sin.jgr only with one x
     and  y  axis  at 0, but with the axis labels at the left and
     the bottom of the graph.

     - sin2.jgr is a different sin  wave  with  a  logarithmic  x

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

     - sin3.jgr shows how a bizarre effect can be gotten by sort-
     ing the points in a different manner.

     - bailey.jgr shows how to use the UNIX spline(1) routine  to
     get interpolation between points.

     - gpaper.jgr shows how you can get jgraph to easily  produce
     graph paper.

     - g9n10.jgr contains two graphs  with  complicated  legends.
     It contains a description of how the legend was created.

     - ex1.jgr and ex2.jgr are two examples which were figures  1
     and two in an extended abstract for a paper about jgraph.

     - mab2.jgr is a graph created by Matt Blaze which shows  how
     a complicated output graph can be quite concisely and simply
     stated.  In this graph, the x axis is a time line.  It shows
     usage of the hash label and hash labels commands, as well as
                  ----------     -----------
     displaying how jgraph lets  you  extract  data  from  output
     files with awk.

     - nr.jgr is an example of a  rather  complicated  bar  graph
     with stripe-filled bars.  It was created by Norman Ramsey.

     - hypercube.jgr shows  an  interesting  use  of  jgraph  for

     - ad.jgr is an example  which  shows  how  one  can  include
     jgraph  output as jgraph input.  The file uses the eps token
     to include cube.jgr, a jgraph drawing of an Intel hypercube,
     and disk.jgr, a jgraph drawing of a disk, in a picture.

     - alb.jgr is another use  of  jgraph  for  picture  drawing.
     This  file was created by an awk script which Adam Buchsbaum
     wrote to draw trees and graphs.

     - wortman.jgr is a neat graph of processor utilization writ-
     ten  by  Dave Wortman for SIGPLAN '92.  It was created by an
     awk script, which processed the data and emitted the jgraph.

     To view these graphs, use jgraph -P, and view the  resulting
     output  file  with  gs,  or a similar postscript viewer.  To
     make a hard copy of these graphs, pipe the output of  jgraph
     -P directly to lpr.

     As hypercube.jgr and alb.jgr show, jgraph can be used  as  a
     postscript  preprocessor  to  make  drawings.  There are two
     advantages using jgraph to draw pictures  instead  of  using
     standard  drawing  tools  like xfig, figtool, or idraw.  The
                                    ----  -------     -----

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jgraph(1)                 User Commands                 jgraph(1)

     first is that with jgraph, you know exactly  where  strings,
     lines, boxes, etc, will end up, because you plot them expli-
     citly.  The second advantage is that for iterative drawings,
     with  lots  of patters, you can combine jgraph with awk or c
     or any other programming language to get complex output in a
     simple  way.   Most  what-you-see-is-what-you-get  (WYSIWYG)
     drawing tools cannot do this.

     The major disadvantage of using jgraph to draw  pictures  is
     that  jgraph  is  not  WYSIWYG.  You have to set up axes and
     plot points, lines and strings.  It's all a matter of taste.

     If you'd like to see some more complex pictures  drawn  with
     jgraph,  as  well  as  some  hints  to  make picture-drawing
     easier, send me email (jsp@princeton.edu).

     I haven't read the manuals, but the way  I've  been  loading
     these files into LaTeX has been as follows:

     1.  Toward the beginning of my LaTeX file, I've had ``\input{psfig}''
     2.  Where I've wanted my file, I've put:


         Some versions of dvips or dvi2ps work without the path-name.  Others
         require that the path-name be present.

     3.  After running latex on the file, do

         lpr -d file.dvi

     4.  If that doesn't work, try dvips-ing the file and printing the postscript.

     Logarithmic axes cannot contain points  <=  0.   If  I  have
     enough  complaints  to  convince me that this is a bug, I'll
     try to fix it.

     There is no real  way  to  make  the  axes  such  that  they
     decrease  from  left  to right or low to high -- or at least
     not without writing your own hash labels.

     There  may  well  be  loads  of   other   bugs.    Send   to

     This is $Revision: 8.3 $.

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